« iepriekšējāTurpināt »
for appropriation and payment to the person entitled thereto. If the amount so certified is unsatisfactory to the person entitled thereto, such person shall be paid only 75 per centum of the amount and shall be entitled to sue the United States to recover such further sums as added to such payment of 75 per centum will make such amount as will be just compensation for the use and control. Such suit shall be brought in the manner provided by paragraph_20 of section 24, or by section 145, of the Judicial Code, as amended.
(f) Nothing in subsection (c) or (d) shall be construed to amend, repeal, impair, or effect existing laws or powers of the States in relation to taxation or the lawful police regulations of the several States, except wherein such laws, powers, or regulations may affect the transmission of Government communications, or the issue of stocks and bonds by any communication system or systems.
(g) Nothing in subsection (c) or (d) shall be construed to authorize the President to make any amendment to the rules and regulations of the Commission which the Commission would not be authorized by law to make; and nothing in subsection (d) shall be construed to authorize the President to take any action the force and effect of which shall continue beyond the date after which taking of such action would not have been authorized.
(h) Any person who willfully does or causes or suffers to be done any act prohibited pursuant to the exercise of the President's authority under this section, or who willfully fails to do any act which he is required to do pursuant to the exercise of the President's authority under this section, or who willfully causes or suffers such failure, shall, upon conviction thereof, be punished for such offense by a fine of not more than $1,000 or by imprisonment for not more than one year, or both, and, if a firm, partnership, association, or corporation, by fine of not more than $5,000, except that any person who commits such an offense with intent to injure the United States, or with intent to secure an advantage to any foreign nation, shall, upon conviction thereof, be punished by a fine of not more than $20,000 or by imprisonment for not more than 20 years, or both.
SEC. 707. [47 U.S.C. 607] EFFECTIVE DATE OF ACT.
This Act shall take effect upon the organization of the Commission, except that this section and sections 1 and 4 shall take effect July 1, 1934. The Commission shall be deemed to be organized upon such date as four members of the Commission have taken office.
SEC. 708. [47 U.S.C. 608] SEPARABILITY CLAUSE.
If any provision of this Act or the application thereof to any person or circumstance is held invalid, the remainder of the Act and the application of such provision to other persons or circumstances shall not be affected thereby.
SEC. 709. [47 U.S.C. 609] SHORT TITLE.
This Act may be cited as the "Communications Act of 1934." SEC. 710. [47 U.S.C. 610] TELEPHONE SERVICE FOR THE DISABLED. (a) The Commission shall establish such regulations as are necessary to ensure reasonable access to telephone service by persons with impaired hearing.
(b)(1)1 Except as provided in paragraphs (2) and (3), the Commission shall require that
(A) all essential telephones, and
(B) all telephones manufactured in the United States (other than for export) more than one year after the date of enactment of the Hearing Aid Compatibility Act of 1988 or imported for use in the United States more than one year after such date,
provide internal means for effective use with hearing aids that are designed to be compatible with telephones which meet established technical standards for hearing aid compatibility.
(2)(A) The initial regulations prescribed by the Commission under paragraph (1) of this subsection after the date of enactment of the Hearing Aid Compatibility Act of 1988 shall exempt from the requirements established pursuant to paragraph (1)(B) of this subsection only
(i) telephones used with public mobile services;
(iv) secure telephones.
(B) The exemption provided by such regulations for cordless telephones shall not apply with respect to cordless telephones manufactured or imported more than three years after the date of enactment of the Hearing Aid Compatibility Act of 1988.
(C) The Commission shall periodically assess the appropriateness of continuing in effect the exemptions provided by such regulations for telephones used with public mobile services and telephones used with private radio services. The Commission shall revoke or otherwise limit any such exemption if the Commission determines that
(i) such revocation or limitation is in the public interest; (ii) continuation of the exemption without such revocation or limitation would have an adverse effect on hearing-impaired individuals;
(iii) compliance with the requirements of paragraph (1)(B) is technologically feasible for the telephones to which the exemption applies; and
(iv) compliance with the requirements of paragraph (1)(B) would not increase costs to such an extent that the telephones to which the exemption applies could not be successfully marketed.
(3) The Commission may, upon the application of any interested person, initiate a proceeding to waive the requirements of
1 Section 710(b) was revised to read as above by section 3 of Public Law 100-394, the "Hearing Aid Compatibility Act of 1988," 102 Stat. 976, Aug. 16, 1988. Section 2 of Public Law 100–394 contained the following findings with respect to these amendments:
SEC. 2. [47 U.S.C. 610 note] The Congress finds that
(1) to the fullest extent made possible by technology and medical science, hearing-impaired persons should have equal access to the national telecommunications network;
(2) present technology provides effective coupling of telephones to hearing aids used by some severely hearing-impaired persons for communicating by voice telephone;
(3) anticipated improvements in both telephone and hearing aid technologies promise greater access in the future; and
(4) universal telephone service for hearing-impaired persons will lead to greater employment opportunities and increased productivity.
paragraph (1)(B) of this subsection with respect to new telephones, or telephones associated with a new technology or service. The Commission shall not grant such a waiver unless the Commission determines, on the basis of evidence in the record of such proceeding, that such telephones, or such technology or service, are in the public interest, and that (A) compliance with the requirements of paragraph (1)(B) is technologically infeasible, or (B) compliance with such requirements would increase the costs of the telephones, or of the technology or service, to such an extent that such telephones, technology, or service could not be successfully marketed. In any proceeding under this paragraph to grant a waiver from the requirements of paragraph (1)(B), the Commission shall consider the effect on hearing-impaired individuals of granting the waiver. The Commission shall periodically review and determine the continuing need for any waiver granted pursuant to this paragraph. (4) For purposes of this subsection
(A) the term "essential telephones" means only coin-operated telephones, telephones provided for emergency use, and other telephones frequently needed for use by persons using such hearing aids;
(B) the term "public mobile services" means air-to-ground radiotelephone services, cellular radio telecommunications services, offshore radio, rural radio service, public land mobile telephone service, and other common carrier radio communication services covered by part 22 of title 47 of the Code of Federal Regulations;
(C) the term "private radio services" means private land mobile radio services and other communications services characterized by the Commission in its rules as private radio services; and
(D) the term "secure telephones" means telephones that are approved by the United States Government for the transmission of classified or sensitive voice communications.
(c) The Commission shall establish or approve such technical standards as are required to enforce this section.
(d) The Commission shall establish such requirements for the labeling of packaging materials for equipment as are needed to provide adequate information to consumers on the compatibility between telephones and hearing aids.
(e) In any rulemaking to implement the provisions of this section, the Commission shall specifically consider the costs and benefits to all telephone users, including persons with and without hearing impairments. The Commission shall ensure that regulations adopted to implement this section encourage the use of currently available technology and do not discourage or impair the development of improved technology.
(f) The Commission shall periodically review the regulations established pursuant to this section. Except for coin-operated telephones and telephones provided for emergency use, the Commission may not require the retrofitting of equipment to achieve the purposes of this section.
(g) Any common carrier or connecting carrier may provide specialized terminal equipment needed by persons whose hearing, speech, vision, or mobility is impaired. The State commission may
allow the carrier to recover in its tariffs for regulated service reasonable and prudent costs not charged directly to users of such equipment.
(h) The Commission shall delegate to each State commission the authority to enforce within such State compliance with the specific regulations that the Commission issues under subsections (a) and (b), conditioned upon the adoption and enforcement of such regulations by the State commission.1
SEC. 711. [47 U.S.C. 611] CLOSED-CAPTIONING OF PUBLIC SERVICE ANNOUNCEMENTS.
Any television public service announcement that is produced or funded in whole or in part by any agency or instrumentality of Federal Government shall include closed captioning of the verbal content of such announcement. A television broadcast station licensee
(1) shall not be required to supply closed captioning for any such announcement that fails to include it; and
(2) shall not be liable for broadcasting any such announcement without transmitting a closed caption unless the licensee intentionally fails to transmit the closed caption that was included with the announcement.
SEC. 712. [47 U.S.C. 612] SYNDICATED EXCLUSIVITY.
(a) The Federal Communications Commission shall initiate a combined inquiry and rulemaking proceeding for the purpose of—
(1) determining the feasibility of imposing syndicated exclusivity rules with respect to the delivery of syndicated programming (as defined by the Commission) for private home viewing of secondary transmissions by satellite of broadcast station signals similar to the rules issued by the Commission with respect to syndicated exclusivity and cable television; and
(2) adopting such rules if the Commission considers the imposition of such rules to be feasible.
(b) In the event that the Commission adopts such rules, any willful and repeated secondary transmission made by a satellite carrier to the public of a primary transmission embodying the performance or display of a work which violates such Commission rules shall be subject to the remedies, sanctions, and penalties provided by title V and section 705 of this Act. 2
SEC. 713. [47 U.S.C. 613] VIDEO PROGRAMMING ACCESSIBILITY.
(a) COMMISSION INQUIRY.-Within 180 days after the date of enactment of the Telecommunications Act of 1996, the Federal
1 Section 710 (formerly section 610) was added by Public Law 97-410, 96 Stat. 2043, approved Jan. 3, 1983. Section 2 (47 U.S.C. 610 note) of the statute stated:
The Congress finds that
(1) all persons should have available the best telephones service which is technologically and economically feasible;
(2) currently available technology is capable of providing telephone service to some individuals who, because of hearing impairments, require telephone reception by means of hearing aids with induction coils, or other inductive receptors;
(3) the lack of technical standards ensuring compatibility between hearing aids and telephones has prevented receipt of the best telephone service which is technologically and economically feasible; and
(4) adoption of technical standards is required in order to ensure compatibility between telephones and hearing aids, thereby accommodating the needs of individuals with hearing impairments.
2 This section was added by Public Law 100-667, 102 Stat. 3949, Nov. 16, 1988, and, pursuant to section 207 of that Act, ceased to be effective on December 31, 1994.
Communications Commission shall complete an inquiry to ascertain the level at which video programming is closed captioned. Such inquiry shall examine the extent to which existing or previously published programming is closed captioned, the size of the video programming provider or programming owner providing closed captioning, the size of the market served, the relative audience shares achieved, or any other related factors. The Commission shall submit to the Congress a report on the results of such inquiry.
(b) ACCOUNTABILITY CRITERIA.-Within 18 months after such date of enactment, the Commission shall prescribe such regulations as are necessary to implement this section. Such regulations shall ensure that
(1) video programming first published or exhibited after the effective date of such regulations is fully accessible through the provision of closed captions, except as provided in subsection (d); and
(2) video programming providers or owners maximize the accessibility of video programming first published or exhibited prior to the effective date of such regulations through the provision of closed captions, except as provided in subsection (d). (c) DEADLINES FOR CAPTIONING.-Such regulations shall include an appropriate schedule of deadlines for the provision of closed captioning of video programming.
(d) EXEMPTIONS.-Notwithstanding subsection (b)—
(1) the Commission may exempt by regulation programs, classes of programs, or services for which the Commission has determined that the provision of closed captioning would be economically burdensome to the provider or owner of such programming;
(2) a provider of video programming or the owner of any program carried by the provider shall not be obligated to supply closed captions if such action would be inconsistent with contracts in effect on the date of enactment of the Telecommunications Act of 1996, except that nothing in this section shall be construed to relieve a video programming provider of its obligations to provide services required by Federal law; and
(3) a provider of video programming or program owner may petition the Commission for an exemption from the requirements of this section, and the Commission may grant such petition upon a showing that the requirements contained in this section would result in an undue burden.
(e) UNDUE BURDEN.-The term "undue burden" means significant difficulty or expense. In determining whether the closed captions necessary to comply with the requirements of this paragraph would result in an undue economic burden, the factors to be considered include
(1) the nature and cost of the closed captions for the programming;
(2) the impact on the operation of the provider or program
(3) the financial resources of the provider or program owner; and