The Antarctic Environmental Protocol and Its Domestic Legal Implementation
A major step towards the comprehensive protection of the Antarctic environment is the adoption of the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty in 1991. The Protocol entered into force in January 1998 and provides a comprehensive system of obligations and prohibitions addressing most types of activities in the region south of 60 degrees south latitude. However, because of the absence of undisputed sovereignty in Antarctica, the legal protection of the Antarctic environment depends on the collective efforts of the Contracting Parties to the Protocol. Have the Contracting Parties adequately incorporated the key provisions of the Protocol into their domestic legal systems? Will the complex of domestic legal systems of the Contracting Parties adequately ensure a 'comprehensive protection' of the 'natural reserve' of Antarctica, as specified by Article 2 of the Protocol? These questions are the subject of this book.
Lietotāju komentāri - Rakstīt atsauksmi
Ierastajās vietās neesam atraduši nevienu atsauksmi.
Characteristics of Antarctica and of the human presence in Antarctica
The Protocol on environmental protection
Objective of this book
negotiations added value and completeness
B The Protocol
Legitimacy of human activities in Antarctica
Domestic legal implementation of Article 3
The consequences of Article 32b
Authorizing activities in specially protected or managed areas
5 Minimum requirements for domestic implementing legislation
Supervision and enforcement
The relationship between the Protocol and other international agreements
Factors influencing the domestic implementation of the Protocol
International attention to the domestic implementation process since 1991
geographical area protected values and jurisdiction
Values protected by the Protocol
Environmental Impact Assessment
Activities subjected to Environmental Impact Assessment
Citi izdevumi - Skatīt visu
activities in Antarctica activity may proceed adopted Annex Antarctic Act 1994 Antarctic activities Antarctic Bill Antarctic environment Antarctic flora Antarctic legislation Antarctic Treaties Act Antarctic Treaty area Antarctic Treaty System Antarctica Act Antarctica New Zealand apply ASOC associated ecosystems ATCM ATCM/IP Australia authorisation CCAMLR Chapter competent authority conduct Consultative Parties Convention CRAMRA cumulative impacts dependent and associated discussed domestic implementing legislation domestic law domestic legal implementation domestic legislation draft CEE draft regulations Dutch EIA provisions ensure Environmental Impact Assessment example explicitly Final Report Greenpeace IAATO Ibid instruments issue Lake Vostok level of EIA mineral resource activities minor or transitory Netherlands obligation paragraph participants permit requirement persons precautionary principle procedures prohibitions proposed activity Protection of Antarctica Protocol regard scientific research scope of application Section selected Contracting Parties South Africa south of 60 subjected tourism transitory impact United Kingdom value of Antarctica Zealand
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