The Antarctic Environmental Protocol and Its Domestic Legal Implementation

Pirmais vāks
Kluwer Law International B.V., 2003. gada 1. janv. - 517 lappuses
A major step towards the comprehensive protection of the Antarctic environment is the adoption of the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty in 1991. The Protocol entered into force in January 1998 and provides a comprehensive system of obligations and prohibitions addressing most types of activities in the region south of 60 degrees south latitude. However, because of the absence of undisputed sovereignty in Antarctica, the legal protection of the Antarctic environment depends on the collective efforts of the Contracting Parties to the Protocol. Have the Contracting Parties adequately incorporated the key provisions of the Protocol into their domestic legal systems? Will the complex of domestic legal systems of the Contracting Parties adequately ensure a 'comprehensive protection' of the 'natural reserve' of Antarctica, as specified by Article 2 of the Protocol? These questions are the subject of this book.
 

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Saturs

Characteristics of Antarctica and of the human presence in Antarctica
3
Chapter
7
The Protocol on environmental protection
11
Objective of this book
18
Methodology
31
Chapter 4
34
Chapter 2
37
negotiations added value and completeness
49
B The Protocol
261
Legitimacy of human activities in Antarctica
268
Domestic legal implementation of Article 3
284
The consequences of Article 32b
291
Authorizing activities in specially protected or managed areas
298
5 Minimum requirements for domestic implementing legislation
305
Conclusions
357
Supervision and enforcement
363

The relationship between the Protocol and other international agreements
58
Factors influencing the domestic implementation of the Protocol
64
International attention to the domestic implementation process since 1991
70
geographical area protected values and jurisdiction
91
Values protected by the Protocol
98
Jurisdictional scope
104
Conclusions
157
Environmental Impact Assessment
163
Activities subjected to Environmental Impact Assessment
171
Consultation
185
Monitoring
195
Conclusions
254
Supervision
373
Sanctions
381
Conclusions
413
Conclusions 87
421
concepts
423
Comprehensive protection of Antarctica through the complex
434
Strengthening joint management in Antarctica
449
Final remarks
472
Bibliography
491
Index
513
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