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CONCLUSION

The country is in the midst of an era of prosperity more extensive and of peace more permanent than it has ever before experienced. But, having reached this position, we should not fail to comprehend that it can easily be lost. It needs more effort for its support than the less exalted places of the world. We shall not be permitted to take our ease, but shall continue to be required to spend our days in unremitting toil. The actions of the Government must command the confidence of the country. Without this, our prosperity would be lost. We must extend to other countries the largest measure of generosity, moderation, and patience. In addition to dealing justly, we can well afford to walk humbly.

The end of government is to keep open the opportunity for a more abundant life. Peace and prosperity are not finalities; they are only methods. It is too easy under their influence for a nation to become selfish and degenerate. This test has come to the United States. Our country has been provided with the resources with which it can enlarge its intellectual, moral, and spiritual life. The issue is in the hands of the people. Our faith in man and God is the justification for the belief in our continuing success.

CALVIN COOLIDGE THE WHITE HOUSE, December 4, 1928.

LIST OF PAPERS

Unless otherwise specified, the correspondence is from or to officials in the Department of State.

GENERAL

TREATY FOR THE RENUNCIATION OF WAR AS AN INSTRUMENT OF NATIONAL

POLICY, SIGNED AT PARIS, August 27, 1928

NEGOTIATION OF THE TREATY

Date and number

Subject

Page

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3

3

1928 Jan. 6 From the French Ambassador

Communication from Foreign Minister Briand, January 5
(text printed), stating that France is disposed to join the
United States in proposing, for agreement by all nations, a
treaty to be signed at the present time by France and the
United States providing for renunciation of all war of aggres-
sion and employment of pacific means for settlement of any
differences that might arise between them, the high contracting
parties to engage to bring the treaty to the att ion of all

States and invite them to adhere.
Jan. 6 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (cir. tel.)

Instructions to deliver to the Foreign Office a memorandum
containing texts of the Briand proposal of June 1927 for a
pact of perpetual friendship and the Secretary of State's reply
of December 28, 1927.

(Sent also to Embassies in Germany, Italy, and Japan.) Jan. 11 To the French Ambassador

Objections to Briand's proposal that treaty be signed by France and United States and then submitted to other Powers, and that its scope be limited to wars of aggression. Suggestion that further discussions be based upon the original proposal and that copy of Briand's original proposal and subsequent correspondence be submitted to the British, German, Italian,

and Japanese Governments. Jan. 21 From the French Ambassador

Explanation of proposal of January 5; desire to receive suggestions which would make it possible to reconcile an absolute condemnation of war with international obligations

already entered into with the several States. Feb. 14 To the Ambassador in France (2632) Information that on February 2 the French Ambassador

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8 GENERAL

stated that Briand's reply to the Secretary of State's proposition must not be construed as a definite refusal to make the treaty but as a suggestion that other French obligations be taken into consideration,

XXVII

TREATY FOR THE RENUNCIATION OF WAR AS AN INSTRUMENT OF NATIONAL

Policy-Continued

Date and number

Subject

Page

9

11

12

1928 Feb. 27 To the French Ambassador

Inability to understand how unequivocal and unqualified renunciation of war as an instrument of national policy could violate obligations imposed by the Covenant of the League of Nations or conflict with idea and purpose of the League; renewal of suggestion that Briand's original proposal and correspondence between the two Governments be laid before British, German, Italian, and Japanese Governments.

(Footnote: Communication of text of this note through American Embassies to the French, British, German, Italian,

and Japanese Foreign Offices.)
Feb. 27 Memorandum by Mr. Spencer Phenix, Assistant to the Under

Secretary of State
Conversation in which the Secretary of State stated, in
response to a question by the French Ambassador, that he
could see no objection to including in a general multilateral
treaty renouncing war a provision that the breach of such
treaty by one party would release the other parties from their

obligations thereunder.
Mar. 1 To the Ambassador in France (cir. tel.).

Texts of two anti-war resolutions adopted at recent Habana Conference: (1) general resolution condemning all war, and (2) resolution against aggression.

(Instructions to repeat to Embassies in Germany, Great

Britain, and Italy. Sent also to Embassy in Japan.) Mar. 3 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.) (42) Request for interpretation of term "aggression” in second

Habana resolution. Mar. 3 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.) (53) Explanation that first Habana resolution would include not

only war but also acts of aggression which might result in war.
Mar. 16 From the Ambassador in Germany (tel.)
(52) Information from Foreign Minister that Briand had in-

quired of colleagues at Geneva whether the U. S. Government
had communicated with them regarding treaty and that the
British, German, and Japanese representatives replied in

affirmative.
Mar. 30 From the French Ambassador

Further observations of Briand concerning proposed treaty; readiness of French Government to join in submitting to German, British, Italian, and Japanese Governments, the correspondence between the two Governments and in proposing a draft agreement essentially corresponding to the original Briand proposal, in the multipartite form desired by the United States and with changes of wording made necessary by

the new concept of the pact. Apr. 3 | From the Ambassador in France

(8494) Favorable reaction in France to last Briand peace pact note.

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19 GENERAL

TREATY FOR THE RENUNCIATION OF WAR AS AN INSTRUMENT OF NATIONAL

POLICY_Continued

Date and number

Subject

Page

21

21

24

26

1928
Apr. 5 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (cir. tel.)
(79) Information that because it is believed important to submit

the treaty correspondence to British, German, Italian, and
Japanese Governments without delay, the Secretary has in-
quired of the French Ambassador whether his Government
is now agreeable.

(Footnotes: Sent also to Embassies in France, Germany,
Italy, and Japan.

Information that on April 7 the French Ambassador made

affirmative answer to Secretary's inquiry.)
Apr. 9 To the Ambassador in France (tel.)
(101) Note for transmission to British, German, Italian, and

Japanese Governments and accompanying draft treaty for
renunciation of war (texts printed).

(Instructions to repeat to Embassies in Great Britain, Ger-
many, and Italy. Sent also to Embassy in Japan.)

(Footnote: Delivery of notes and draft treaty to the respec

tive Foreign Offices on April 13.) Apr. 10 To the Ambassador in France (tel.) (102) Instructions to explain to Briand personally the Secretary's

views and intention with regard to submission to the other four

powers of the draft treaty correspondence. Apr. 11 From the Ambassador in France (tel.) (90) Briand's understanding of Secretary's views and intention,

and his reservation of right to submit to the other four powers

a draft form of treaty embodying French point of view. Apr. 12 From the Ambassador in France (tel.) (91)

Request by Briand that Department also communicate to the other four powers the substance of its telegram No. 102 of April 10, and inform him of date it proposes to send the

communications.
Apr. 12 10 the Ambassador in France (tel.)
(105) Information as to arrangements for submission of note, draft

treaty, and correspondence to the other four Governments;
instructions for advance notice and delivery to French

Government.
Apr. 16 From the Ambassador in Japan
(830) Favorable attitude of Foreign Minister toward the idea

embodied in note and draft treaty, and his promise to give

matter careful consideration. Apr. 17 From the Ambassador in Germany 13411) Note from Foreign Minister, April 13, acknowledging receipt

of U. S. note and enclosing a statement of views expressed at

time of delivery (texts printed). Apr. 20 Memorandum by the Under Secretary of State

Delivery by Count de Sartiges of French draft anti-war

treaty. Updated French Draft of Treaty (Rec'd For the condemnation and renunciation of war as an instruApr. 20) ment of national policy.

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32

GENERAL

TREATY FOR THE RENUNCIATION OF WAR AS AN INSTRUMENT OF NATIONAL

POLICY—Continued

Date and number

Subject

Page

34

34

39

1928
Apr. 21 To the Ambassador in France (tel.)
(117) Information that the French draft seems entirely unaccept-

able; instructions to avoid discussion of matter until advised
of Department's position.

(Sent also to Embassies in Great Britain, Germany, Italy,

and Japan.)
Apr. 23 To the Ambassador in France (tel.)
(118) Unacceptability of French draft; exposition of Secretary's

views on points emphasized in French correspondence and
draft treaty; authorization to use this material, at own discre-
tion, in discussions at Foreign Office. Willingness, if necessary
to prevent complete failure of negotiations, to include provi-
sion that in event any party to treaty becomes involved in war,
the other parties shall be released from obligations under the
treaty so far as regards belligerent party; instructions to feel
out general situation.

(Instructions to repeat to Embassies in Great Britain, Ger

many, and Italy. Similar telegram to Embassy in Japan.) Apr. 27

From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
(88) Expression by Foreign Secretary of readiness to approach

anti-war treaty sympathetically, of probability that
meeting of Foreign Secretaries might be necessary later, and of
pleasure at intimation via British Ambassador that U. S.
Secretary might be willing to go to Europe to meet them.
Ambassador's suggestion that Secretary give to press a state-
ment of position along lines of exposition set forth in tele-

gram of April 23. Apr. 30

To the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
(104) Information that in address before American Society of

International Law, April 28, Secretary gave statement of posi-
tion as set forth in telegram of April 23. Hope that French
proposal to Italian Government that question of compatibility
of anti-war treaty with League Covenant, Locarno treaties,
etc., be referred to a commission of jurists representing princi-
pal Locarno powers and Japan, will not meet with general

acceptance.
May 1 From the Ambassador in Germany
(3473) Foreign Minister's note of April 27 (text printed) stating

Germany's readiness to conclude anti-war pact and to enter

into the necessary negotiations.
May 2 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
(93) Inclination of British Government to accept anti-war pro-

posal without serious discussion and to approach the subject
of reservations, interpretations, etc., after treaty signature;

probability that France will be urged to follow same procedure.
May 2 From the Ambassador in Italy (tel.)
(42) Italian favorable attitude toward treaty, their belief that

preliminary meeting of jurists, including a U. S. representative, should be held, and their opinion that conference of Foreign Secretaries could be held later,

(Repeated to London.)

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