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pressed before the House Committee last year that the bill would in practice constitute a discrimination in favour of Japanese and other Asiatic vessels at the expense of the merchant marine of Great Britain and all other maritime countries, since whereas vessels of these countries would be prevented from employing Japanese and Asiatic labour, Japanese or other Asiatic merchant vessels would be free to call at United States ports with crews of their own nationality on board. In addition, as pointed out above, there would appear to be discrimination against Asiatic seamen serving in European or other vessels not of their own country.
Detailed objections to the Bill on technical grounds were laid before the House Committee on Immigration by representatives of shipping interests last year.
[WASHINGTON,] January 4, 1928.
The Swedish Legation to the Department of State
MEMORANDUM Swedish shipowners operating vessels on the United States have voiced their deep concern on account of Senate Bill 717, introduced in the United States Senate on December 9, 1927, by Senator King, regarding the deportation of certain alien seamen ("Alien Seamen Act of 1926”). The provisions of the bill seem to give room for such a strict interpretation as to exclude seamen of a kind that masters of ships very often have to employ in traffic between North and South America on account of a shortage of such seamen as would ordinarily come within the category "bona fide seamen”.
The passage of the bill would undoubtedly create great difficulties in securing the necessary crews and cause many hardships and considerable losses to Swedish shipowners.
The provisions in the bill which prescribe that all vessels entering ports of the United States manned with crews the majority of which, exclusive of licensed officers, have been engaged and taken on at foreign ports shall, when departing from the United States ports, carry a crew of at least equal number, may also create great difficulties for the Swedish shipowners.
WASHINGTON, January 13, 1928.
The Netherlands Legation to the Department of State
The attention of the Royal Netherland Legation has been drawn on a Bill, which, if passed, will be called, "Alien Seamen Act of 1926", and is mentioned on page 347 of the Congressional Record of December 9, 1927.37 It is reintroduced into the Senate and referred to the Committee on Immigration.
Two clauses of this Bill will create, if enforced as introduced, serious difficulties for several steamship Companies of the Netherlands.
The first is the provision prohibiting any ship from entering an American port, if among her crew are aliens, who would not be admissible to the United States under the Immigration Laws (Section 7). A great number of Netherland ships, especially those of the Pacific Lines, have in their crew Javanese and Chinese, both being most times Netherland subjects. If the bill should come into force, the strange fact would occur, that a ship, carrying the Netherland flag, would not be allowed to have certain subjects of her own country in her crew when entering a port of the United States.
The second clause is to the effect that clearance will be refused to any ship whose crew, as far as engaged and taken at foreign ports, shall, when departing from the United States, be smaller than at the arrival of the vessel. It is obvious, that this provision in many cases will cause a long delay and considerable pecuniary loss to Netherlands vessels and it seems hardly fair to force the latter to take on board a number of undesirable aliens simply in order to bring the crew up to its full number.
The Netherland Government considers that this Bill, if passed, will be most detrimental to the shipping interests of the Kingdom and will constitute a strong impediment to the development of the economic relations between the United States and Holland.
The Royal Government would therefore highly appreciate if the United States Government and Congress, when the bill is under discussion, would give due consideration to the very important interests of Netherlands navigation, endangered thereby.
WASHINGTON, January 17, 1928.
The German Embassy to the Department of State 38
Senate Bill 717 “To provide for the deportation of certain alien seamen and for other purposes[%] in the opinion of the German Government if enacted will entail serious hardships to German shipping interests. Especially Section 3 and Section 6 are considered to cause objections on the part of German shipping.
Section 3 provides that if an alien who is held not to be a bona fide seaman has been found inadmissible "such alien shall be deported, as
Daily issue; bound issue, vol. 69, pt. 1, p. 341.
a passenger, on a vessel other than that by which brought, at the expense of the vessel by which brought, and the vessel by which brought shall not be granted clearance until such expense[s] are paid or their payment satisfactorily guaranteed.”
Section 6 provides that “all vessels entering ports of the United States manned with crews the majority of which, exclusive of licensed officers, have been engaged and taken on at foreign ports shall, when departing from the United States ports, carry a crew of at least equal number, and any such vessel which fails to comply with this requirement shall be refused clearance".
The Norwegian Legation to the Department of State
Norwegian Shipowners interested in the shipping trade on the ports of the United States have expressed their great concern to the Norwegian Government about a Bill (Senate Bill 717), introduced in the United States Senate by Senator King and providing for the deportation of certain alien seamen. The said Norwegian Shipowners are of opinion that the Bill, if passed, undoubtedly will cause many difficulties and great expenses to their ships.
1) In the first place the provisions of the Bill excluding all seamen not falling under the strict category of "bona fide" seamen would, in case of shortage of the crew brought about say by sickness, death or desertion in foreign ports and when, as frequently happens in certain countries ordinary professional seamen not are available, prevent captains from completing the crew, thus exposing their ships to risks and perils from being undermanned. 2) The necessity for ships, under section 6 of the Bill, when departing from the United States, to carry a crew of at least equal number as when entering the port will often cause great difficulties. 3) According to sections 3 and 7 alien seamen found inadmissible from the reasons therein stated shall be deported on a vessel other than that on which they were brought, at the expense of the vessel by which brought. These provisions will in frequent cases result in extraordinarily heavy expenses to the ships as well as in inconveniences to ships, captains and often to the seamen themselves.
WASHINGTON, January 28, 1928.
RECOGNITION OF ZOG I, KING OF THE ALBANIANS *
The Minister in Albania (Hart) to the Secretary of State
TIRANA, August 4, 1928—10 a. m.
[Received 8:10 p. m.] 48. Zogu? to proclaim himself King within 30 days, officially disclosed.
The Acting Secretary of State to the Minister in Albania (Hart)
WASHINGTON, August 28, 1928–6 p. m. 28. Your 48, August 4, 10 a. m. The Department presumes you will continue to keep it advised by cable regarding the proposed change of regime in Albania. The Department also wishes information at the appropriate moment regarding the action your colleagues will take concerning recognition and presence at the coronation.
The Minister in Albania (Hart) to the Secretary of State No. 510
TIRANA, August 30, 1928.
[Received September 11.] SIR: Supplemental to my despatch No. 502 of August 28, 1928, with reference to the proposed early change of the form of government in Albania, I have the honor to report that the decision to proclaim Ahmet Zogu the King two days hence, or on Saturday, September 1, appears to be final.
* For previous correspondence regarding relations with the revolutionary government in Albania, see Foreign Relations, 1925, vol. I, pp. 489 ff.
'Ahmet Zogu, President of Albania. 'Not printed.
For the last two days the Constituent Assembly has had before it a motion made by Feizi bey Alizotti to give the new monarch the title of “King of the Albanians.” Two or three dissenting voices were hissed down and the title is likely to be approved, as a consequence of which Yugoslavia may take abundant time to investigate the inception of this idea.
My Yugoslav colleague said today that the question is one that calls for consideration and that his government will take time to satisfy itself that there is not something sinister about this proposed title which in effect would make the new monarch the king of all Albanians either inside or outside Albania.
The Constituent Assembly, according to the present schedule, will adjourn on Saturday, September 1, after revising the form of gorernment and writing Ahmet Zogu's name into the constitution as King. Ilias Vrioni, Minister for Foreign Affairs, informs me that the King will take the title of Zogu I. I have [etc.]
CHA[RLE]s C. HART
875.001 Zog/14 : Telegram
The Minister in Albania (Aart) to the Secretary of State
TIRANA, September 1, 1928–11 a. m.
[Received September 41:09 a. m.] 56. Ahmet Zogu was proclaimed at 9 o'clock this morning as "Zog First, King of the Albanians.” It is probable that there will be no coronation and no ceremonies which might raise embarrassing questions for the diplomatic body, acting in unison here. The French Government is indicating an attitude of caution because of the title of “King of the Albanians," while my colleagues from Yugoslavia, Turkey, Germany, and Great Britain, although without instructions, believe their Governments will for the same reason proceed slowly. Today I was confidentially informed that the Italians through Feizi Alizotti and S. Verlaci forced Zogu to change his title when they visited the palace yesterday and asserted they would resign from office and cause a scandal if Zogu persisted in using “King of Albania."
The change of government, in my view, has been brought about in a regular manner and will be accepted by Albania.
*Corrected version received Sept. 8, 8:50 a. m.