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CHAPTER III.

ECONOMIC STATUS.

Industrial condition abroad of members of immigrant households studied—Principal occupation of immigrant employees before coming to the United States—General occupation of males at the present time in the households studied—General occupation of women at the present time in the households studied-Weekly earningsRelation between period of residence and earning ability-Annual earnings of male heads of families studied-Annual earnings of males 18 years of age or over in the households studied-Annual earnings of females 18 years of age or over in the households studied-Annual family income_Wives at work-Relation between the earnings of husbands and the practice of wives of keeping boarders or lodgersSources of family income_Relative importance of different sources of family income—[Text Tables 16 to 43 and General Tables 6 to 21).

INDUSTRIAL CONDITION ABROAN OF MEMBERS OF IMMIGRANT HOUSE

HOLDS STUDIED.

Before entering into a discussion of the economic status in this country of employees and members of their households engaged in this industry, the industrial condition and principal occupations of immigrant workers and members of their households while abroad are considered. The first table presented in this connection, which immediately follows, shows, by race of individual, the industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born males in the households studied who were 16 years of age or over at the time of arrival in this country. TABLE 16.Industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born males who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

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Of 394 foreign-born males for whom information was secured, 2 per cent were without occupation, 74.4 per cent were working for wages, 16.2 per cent were working without wages, while 7.4 per cent are working for profit. No Flemish or Germans and less than 1 per cent of Magyars were without occupations, but over 9 per cent of Lithuanians were of that class. Over 90 per cent of Germans, Hebrews, and Flemish were working for wages, but only a trifle over 51 per cent of the Poles were thus employed. Of those who were working without wages, the Poles show over 40 per cent, the Lithuanians over 28 per cent, and the Swedes over 20 per cent, while less than 3 per cent of either Germans or Flemish, and no Hebrews are reported in this class. Nearly 20 per cent of the Magyars were working for profit, but no Germans, Hebrews, and but very few of any other race were thus engaged.

The table next presented shows, by race of individual, the occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born males in the households studied, who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming.

Table 17.Occupation before coming to the United States, of foreign-born males who were

16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

(This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

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The foregoing table gives a report from 394 foreign-born males, of whom 2 per cent had no occupation before coming to the United States, while 74.4 per cent were working for wages, as follows: Thirtyone per cent were farm laborers, 8.6 per cent general laborers, 17.5 per cent at hand trades, and 17.3 per cent in other occupations; and 16.2 per cent were working without wages as follows: Thirteen and seventenths per cent were farm laborers, 2.5 per cent were engaged in other occupations, while 7.4 per cent were working for profit as follows: Six and three-tenths per cent were farming and 1 per cent followed other occupations. The Germans show the greatest proportion, over 97 per cent who are working for wages, most of them either as farm laborers or as general laborers. Over 95 per cent of the Hebrews were wage-earners, most of them being engaged in the hand trades. More than 92 per cent of the Flemish were working for wages, chiefly as farm laborers and as general laborers. The Poles and Lithuanians show the lowest proportion who were wage-earners. No Hebrews and but few Germans or Flemish appear to have been working without wages, but over 40 per cent of the Polish were so employed, most of them being farm laborers. Only one race, the Magyars, show any considerable proportion who were working for profit.

In the following table the industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born females, in the households studied, who were 16 years of age or over at the time of coming, is shown by race of individual.

Table 18.—Industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born

females who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (This table includes only races with 20 or more females reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

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More than 55 per cent of the persons in the above table were without occupation before coming to the United States. Less than 1 per cent were working for profit, while 38 per cent were working for wages. The Poles show the largest proportion—85.6 per cent—who were without occupation. The Hebrews show a proportion almost as large. The Flemish, of whom 29.6 per cent were without occupation, show the smallest proportion. The Poles show the smallest proportion working for wages and the Flemish show the largest proportion. None of the Poles, Hebrews, or Flemish were working without wages. The Magyars and Poles are the only races showing any persons working for profit, and for each of those races the proportion is less than 3 per cent.

The table next submitted shows, by race of individual, the occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born females, in the households studied, who were 16 years of age or over at time of arrival in this country.

Table 19.-Occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born females who

were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more females reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-bom)

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From this table it is seen that of 313 females, over 16 years of age at time of coming to the United States, 55.9 per cent were without occupation, 38 per cent were working for wages, 5.4 per cent were working without wages, and 0.6 per cent were working for profit. By far the greatest proportion of Polish and Hebrew females were without occupation. *About 85 per cent are so reported, while with the Flemish only about 30 per cent were without employment, and with the Swedes about 40 per cent. Most of the Flemish females were working for wages, chiefly as farm laborers. With the Swedes about 50 per cent of females were working, of whom the greater proportion were in domestic service. The Germans also show a heavy proportion of females who followed this line of work. Very few females were working without wages and even fewer were working for profit.

PRINCIPAL OCCUPATION OF IMMIGRANT EMPLOYEES BEFORE COMING

TO THE UNITED STATES.

The table following shows, by race, the percentage of foreign-born male employees who were in each specified occupation before coming to the United States.

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TABLE 20.-- Per cent of foreign-born male employees in each specified occupation before

coming to the United States, by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (This table includes only races with 80 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

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Of the 12,000 foreign-born male employees in this industry for whom information was obtained the largest proportion, or 50.1 per cent, were engaged in farming or employed as farm laborers prior to coming to the United States, 15.5 per cent were in hand trades, 13.6 per cent in manufacturing, 9.9 per cent were employed in general labor, 8 per cent in occupations other than specified, while 2.2 and 0.8 per cent were engaged in trade or employed in domestic service, respectively. With the exception of the Bohemians and Moravians, Canadians other than French, English, and Norwegians each race shows a larger proportion who were engaged in farming or employed as farm labor than in any other occupation before coming to the United States. It is apparent from the above table that farming before coming to the United States was far more extensively followed by the more recent than by the older immigrant races, a considerable proportion for the older immigrant races having been employed in manufacturing, hand trades, and in occupations other than specified in the above table. This is well illustrated by the English, only 5.5 per cent of whom were engaged in farming abroad, as compared with 37.6 per cent who were engaged in manufacturing, 13.3 per cent in hand trades, and 26.7 per cent in occupations other than specified. The English show, with the exception of the Norwegians, a larger proportion employed in occupations other than specified, and, with the exception of the Canadians other than French, a larger proportion employed in manufacturing prior to coming to the United States, than is shown by any other race. Only very small proportions of any of the races were employed in domestic service

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