Psychology of Learning and Motivation

Pirmais vāks
Academic Press, 1988. gada 15. apr. - 318 lappuses
Psychology of Learning and Motivation

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Saturs

Chapter 2 A ConnectionistControl Architecture For Working Memory
53
Chapter 3 The Intelligent Hand
121
Chapter 4 Successive Approximations To A Model Of Human Motor Programming
153
Chapter 5 Modular Analysis Of Timing In Motor Skill
183
Chapter 6 Associative Accounts Of Causality Judgment
229
Pharmacological And Anatomical Analysis Of The FearPotentiated Startle Paradigm
263
Index
307
Contents of Recent Volumes
317
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49. lappuse - The views and conclusions contained in this document are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as representing the official policies, either expressed or implied, of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency or the US Government.
29. lappuse - The existence of chunks implies that memory is hierarchically structured as a lattice (tangled hierarchy, acyclic directed graph, etc.), rooted in a set of preexisting primitives. A given chunk can be accessed in a top-down fashion, by decoding a chunk of which it is a part, or in a bottom-up fashion, by encoding from the parts of the chunk. Encoding is a recognition or parsing process. The existence of chunks does not need to be justified solely on the basis of the practice curves.
264. lappuse - Brown, Kalish, and Farber (1951) demonstrated that the amplitude of the acoustic startle reflex in the rat can be augmented by presenting the eliciting auditory startle stimulus in the presence of a cue (eg, a light) that has previously been paired with a shock. This phenomenon has been termed the "fear-potentiated startle effect...
35. lappuse - The goal structure in figure 10-4 is based on a recursive divide-and-conquer algorithm in which the stimulus display is broken up into smaller and smaller horizontal segments until manageable pieces are generated. There are three types of horizontal segments that have been defined as manageable. The first type of manageable segment is one in which no lights are on. Such segments require no explicit processing, so the goal just returns with success. The opposite of the first type of segment — one...
33. lappuse - ... and that the chunk is created at a time when the information required for the chunk is available. The second condition causes chunks to be created bottom up in the goal hierarchy. It is this bottom-up aspect of chunking that leads to hierarchical encoding and decoding networks. However, notice that bottom-up chunking does not imply that all low-level chunks are learned before any high-level chunks are learned, or even that all of the chunks must be learned for a subgoal before any can be learned...
284. lappuse - The central nucleus of the amygdala projects to a variety of brain regions via two major efferent pathways, the stria terminalis and the ventral amygdalofugal pathway.
299. lappuse - Davis, M., & Astrachan, DI (1978). Conditioned fear and startle magnitude: Effects of different footshock or backshock intensities used in training, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 4, 95-103. Davis, M., Falls, WA, Campeau, S., & Kim, M.
274. lappuse - ... modulates transmission following conditioning. To do this, startle-like responses were elicited electrically from various points along the startle pathway before and after presentation of a light that was either paired or not paired with a shock in different groups of rats (Berg & Davis, 1985). Startle elicited by electrical stimulation at or before the point in the startle circuit where the light modulates transmission should show potentiation, whereas startle elicited beyond this point should...
27. lappuse - The other added parameter (E) is required because power laws are not translation invariant. Practice occurring before the official beginning of the experiment — even if it consists only of transfer of training from everyday experience — will alter the shape of the curve, unless the effect is explicitly allowed for by the inclusion of this parameter. Augmenting the power-law function by these two parameters yields the following generalized function: T= A...
32. lappuse - The first subgoal (Compute-Sum-Of-Two-Numbers) performs the first half of the computation. It takes the two numbers as parameters and returns their sum as its result. The second subgoal finishes the computation by taking the sum as a parameter and returning half of it as its result. Suppose that the first task is to average the numbers 3 and 7. Control would pass from goal 1 to goal 2. When goal 2 finishes and returns its result of 10, a chunk of three components is created (bottom left of figure...

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