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Page Transportation Act, 1920, $$ 416, 422...

767 Transportation Act, 1940, 81

238 882, 3, 4, 6.

567 § 202

649 307

567 321

248

Page
Tucker Act....

238
United States Warehouse
Act, § 29..

767
Wagner Act.

767
§ 10 ..

219
War Labor Disputes Act,
$$ 3, 5, 6..

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(B) STATUTES OF THE STATES AND TERRITORIES. Alabama.

Louisiana-Continued. 1931 Laws, p. 154..... 552 1908 Acts, No. 54, $$ 1, Code, 1940, Title 12,

2, 3, 4..

552 § 157

75

No. 55, $1.. 552 Title 38, c. 2.. 552 1910 Acts, No. 26, § 1.. 552 Connecticut.

1928 Acts, No. 198, $ 4. 552 Gen. Stat., 1939 Supp.,

No. 250, 8 26..... 709

§ c. 105a, 698e....

1942 Acts, No. 134.... 552 Delaware.

Gen. Stat., § 1106.... 709
Rev. Code, 1935, c. 35.. 552 Gen. Stat., 1939,
District of Columbia.

$$ 9141, 9149, 9154,
Code,

9155, 9156, 9157,
$$ 11-301, 11-305.. 731

9163, 9166.... 552
§ 11-306 .....
75, 731

Title 59, cc. 6, 8... 552
§ 36–501

469 Gen. Stat., 1946 Supp., Workmen's Compensa

$9155

552 tion Act, 1........ 469

Rev.

Stat., 1869, Florida.

$$ 2704, 2707.. 552 1933 Laws, c. 16088.... 552

Maryland. 1941 Stats., § 65.14.... 610

Dorsey Laws, 1803, c. Stats. Ann., 1941,

63, $$ 2, 20, 23. 552 88 116.10, 116.11. ... 552

Flack Ann. Code, 1939, Stats. Ann., 1943,

Art. 74...

552 $ 65.14

610 Massachusetts. Idaho.

Declaration of Rights.. 258 1915 Sess. Laws, c. 10.. 552

1783 Laws, c. 13... 552 Code Ann., 1932, § 57

Rev. Stat., 1836, c. 32.. 552 701

552 Missouri. Illinois.

Constitution, 1924, Art. Rev. Stat., 1943, c. 48,

14, § 13.

552 88 138-172

622 Nebraska. c. 70, $81, 2... 622 1919 Laws, c. 190, $ 6.. 552 Personal Injuries Act.. 622

Rev. Stat., 1943, § 81Workmen's Compensa

108

552 tion Act, $$ 3,5....

... 622

New Jersey. Louisiana.

1898 Laws, c. 31...... 55? 1805 Acts, c. 24, $$ 17,

1941 Laws, c. 191. 1 20

552 Rev. Laws, 1847, Title 1806 Acts, c. 26, § 1.... 552

37, c. 7, § 18.. 552 1837 Acts, No. 106, § 9. 552 Rev. Stats., Title 1, c. 1, 1857 Acts, No. 113,

§ 10; $ 18:7–78..... 1 $ 20..

552

Rev. Stats. Cum. Supp., 1880 Acts, No. 99, $2.. 552

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Page New Jersey-Continued.

Pennsylvania-Continued.
Stats. Ann., 1939, Title

Purdon's Stat. Ann.,
12, c. 8..

552

1930, Title 55, c. 2... 552 New York.

Purdon's Stat. Ann.,
Constitution, 1938, Art.

1942, Title 71.
1
§ 741.904

75
1819 Laws, c. XVIII, Rhode Island.
88I, VII, X, XII.... 552

Charter, 1663....

1 1937 Laws, c. 443. 767

1938 Gen. Laws, c. 500, 1940 Laws, c. 245.

422

$ 28; c. 525, 87; c. 1942 Laws, c. 518... 767

631, $ 4..

386 30 McKinney's Consoli

1939 Acts & Resolves, dated Laws, $8 700

75 716

767

South Carolina.
Decedent Estate Law,
$$ 130-134

Code, 1942, § 377..... 212 446

Tennessee.
Domestic Relations
Law, $70.... 610

Code, $$ 6852, 6880,
Labor Relations Act... 767

6883,

6890 New York City Local

6891, 6893.

464 Laws, No. 22, 1937;

Code Ann., 1934, 8 6851
No. 20, 1938; No.

464 103, 1939; No. 78,

Workmen's Compensa1940, 88 R41-2.0,

tion Law.....

464 R41-3.0; No.

Texas.

47, 1941

422

1909 Acts, p. 85.... 552 North Carolina.

Vernon's Penal Code,
Constitution, 1776,

1938, Arts. 432–438.. 552 8 XXXII

1

Virginia.
1933 Laws, c. 36. 183

Declaration of Rights,
Gen. Stat., 1943, § 1-25. 183

1776

1 Michie's Code, $ 2593.. 183 1786, Act of Jan. 19, EsRev. Stat., 1837, c. 88,

tablishing Religious
8$ 1, 5, 14..

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Freedom

1 Ohio.

12 Hening Stats. (1823) Page's Gen. Code, 1937,

84

1 8 486–23

75

Code, 1849, c. 92, $$ 4, Oregon.

9

552 Comp. Laws Ann., 1940,

Code, 1942, c. 142. 552 Title 105, c. 2. 552 Wisconsin. Pennsylvania.

1945 Stats., c. 102..... 622 1767 Laws, c. 536, $ VI. 552 Workmen's Compensa1803 Laws, No. 542... 552

tion Act...

622 (C) TREATIES. 1868, Mar. 2, 15 Stat. 619 1943, Apr. 26, 57 Stat. 1152 (Indian) 169 (Mexico)

724 1942, Aug. 4, 56 Stat. 1759 (Mexico)

724

(D) FOREIGN STATUTES. English.

2 Richard III, 9 pl. 22. 258
27 Henry VIII, 15. .... 258

CASES ADJUDGED

IN THE

SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES

AT

OCTOBER TERM, 1946.

EVERSON v. BOARD OF EDUCATION OF THE

TOWNSHIP OF EWING ET AL.

APPEAL FROM THE COURT OF ERRORS AND APPEALS OF NEW

JERSEY.

No. 52. Argued November 20, 1946.-Decided February 10, 1947. Pursuant to a New Jersey statute authorizing district boards of

education to make rules and contracts for the transportation of children to and from schools other than private schools operated for profit, a board of education by resolution authorized the reimbursement of parents for fares paid for the transportation by public carrier of children attending public and Catholic schools. The Catholic schools operated under the superintendency of a Catholic priest and, in addition to secular education, gave religious instruction in the Catholic Faith. A district taxpayer challenged the validity under the Federal Constitution of the statute and resolution, so far as they authorized reimbursement to parents for the transportation of children attending sectarian schools. No question was raised as to whether the exclusion of private schools operated for profit denied equal protection of the laws; nor did the record show that there were any children in the district who attended, or would have attended but for the cost of transportation, any, but public or Catholic schools. Held:

1. The expenditure of tax-raised funds thus authorized was for a public purpose, and did not violate the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. Pp. 5–8.

2. The statute and resolution did not violate the provision of the First Amendment (made applicable to the states by the Fourteenth Amendment) prohibiting any "law respecting an establish

ment of religion.” Pp. 8–18. 133 N. J. L. 350, 44 A. 2d 333, affirmed.

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In a suit by a taxpayer, the New Jersey Supreme Court held that the state legislature was without power under the state constitution to authorize reimbursement to parents of bus fares paid for transporting their children to schools other than public schools. 132 N. J. L. 98, 39 A. 2d 75. The New Jersey Court of Errors and Appeals reversed, holding that neither the statute nor a resolution passed pursuant to it violated the state constitution or the provisions of the Federal Constitution in issue. 133 N. J. L. 350, 44 A. 2d 333. On appeal of the federal questions to this Court, affirmed, p. 18.

Edward R. Burke and E. Hilton Jackson argued the cause for appellant. With Mr. Burke on the brief were Challen B. Ellis, W. D. Jamieson and Kahl K. Spriggs.

William H. Speer argued the cause for appellees. With him on the brief were Porter R. Chandler and Roger R. Clisham,

Briefs of amici curiae in support of appellant were filed by E. Hilton Jackson for the General Conference of Seventh-Day Adventists et al.; by Harry V. Osborne, Kenneth W. Greenawalt and Whitney N. Seymour for the American Civil Liberties Union; and by Milton T. Lasher for the State Council of the Junior Order of United American Mechanics of New Jersey.

Briefs of amici curiae in support of appellees were filed by George F. Barrett, Attorney General of Illinois, William C. Wines, Assistant. Attorney General of Illinois, and James A. Emmert, Attorney General of Indiana, for the States of Illinois and Indiana; by Fred S. LeBlanc, Attorney General, for the State of Louisiana; by Clarence A. Barnes, Attorney General, for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts; by Edmund E. Shepherd, Solicitor General, and Daniel J. O'Hara, Assistant Attorney General, for the

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