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General Booth. The obligations as of December 31, sir, were $35,817,000.

Mr. Mahon. Do you think your projections are reasonably accurate? General Booth. Yes, we do.

Mr. MAHON. How many funds are available in toto for you to utilize in the case of an emergency for this purpose ?

General BOOTH. Just this, sir-
Mr. Mahon. Do you have any other no year funds ?
General Booth. No, sir.

RESEARCH PROGRAM

Mr. Mahon. What proportion of your research effort is by contract ? General Booth. It is between 80 and 90 percent, sir.

Colonel LEDFORD. This is a difficult question to answer, sir, because We develop a program of DOD-wide research. That is, all three services give us requirements and we develop one program. We order certain research projects upon service laboratories, and in many cases they contract further for the various parts of this effort.

Mr. Mahon. How much is included in the $42.5 million, as shown in your statement for 1962 for the operation and maintenance of research facilities?

General BOOTH. None, sir.

Mr. Mahon. None of it is for the operation and maintenance of research facilities?

General BOOTH. No, sir.

Mr. Mahon. What buildings are rented or leased out of research funds ?

General Booth. None, sir.

DAMAGE ASSESSMENT CENTER

Mr. Mahon. Will you explain to the committee just what the Damage Assessment Center is? What does it do?

General Booty. Yes, sir. It was directed by the Joint Chiefs of Staff. It is a computer supported operations research center that is set up to furnish information to the Commander in Chief, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the Secretary of Defense with respect to preattack and postattack damage by atomic explosions.

Mr. Mahon. Does it have any relationship to a similar center at High Point?

General Booth. It has a relationship, sir, in that we use the information from the High Point Center, however this is not sufficient to meet our needs. It is concerned primarily with the resources of this country. The DOD Damage Assessment Center takes into account the resources of our allies, military and natural, and of our enemies as well.

Mr. Flood. What is preattack damage?

General Booth. Expected damage, sir. We have a preattack assessment of damage to particular targets, for example. We have made studies and have a typical manual here today showing different target complexes, and what we would expect if we put down an atomic explosion under certain conditions on them.

Mr. MINSHALL. I did not understand your answer in response to your question about the bomb damage assessment. Will you explain that a little more in detail, General?

How do you assess this damage? By what means is it assessed? General BOOTH. As a result of studies that are made, sir

Mr. MINSHALL. How do you make these studies? This is after an attack?

General BOOTII. There are two types: The preattack and postattack.

Mr. MINSHALL. I am talking about the postattack.

General Booth. After the attack this information will be fed into the Joint Communications Center.

Mr. MINSHALL. What information is going to be fed where?

General Bootu. The information will come from the unified and specified commanders, and will come to the Damage Assessment Center, the best available information they have as to the strike results.

Mr. MAHON. By us?
General Booth. Yes, sir.
Mr. Mahon. Not by the enemy?
General Booth. These are strikes on an enemy.

We will also have the information for our side. We will do it for ourselves.

Mr. MINSHALL. How will that be tied into the Army's bomb alarm system? Are you familiar with that?

General BOOTH. No, sir.

General DUFF. This is part of the early warning system. I believe, Mr. Minshall, in which in the event that communications were not readily available with regard to a possible intercontinental ballistic missile attack, in case the ballistic missile early warning radar station should be knocked out or the communications from the station should be interrupted, then this would provide a positive means of giving the alarm.

Mr. Mahon. Where do we have these damage assessment centers?

General Bootu. We are constructing the pilot model now in the basement of the Pentagon. For interim emergency use, we plan to have it at

We will have the interim capability of operating from there in the event of an emergency, depending on what decisions are finally reached with respect to the command post.

Mr. Mahon. Who will get the information as to the extent of damage to you in order that you may furnish it to appropriate people!

General BOOTH. This will come from the unified commands and all the agencies involved in it, and will update our calculated situation estimates.

Mr. Mahon. Are other Government agencies financing projects of this type?

General Booth. Not that I know of, sir. There is no project like this, or as comprehensive as this one.

NEW FUNCTIONS ASSIGNED

Mr. MAHON. On page 4 of your statement you indicate new functions assigned, one-time projects which lead to more O. & M. fund requirements for 1962. Would you describe that in more detail?

General Booth. Yes, sir. Our increase in O. & M. principally is of $2.3 million for a new communications system for the agency. This is the major item. We have an antiquated communications system now and we are going to single sideband radio so that we can perform our mission in the event of an emergency.

The Damage Assessment Center is another one that is a new mission assigned to us.

TRAINING PROGRAM Mr. Mahon. What does your training program consist of, where is it held and what is the load of trainees? What are the statistics as to the number of trainees, et cetera !

General Booth. It is at Sandia Base, sir, where our principal courses are conducted.

Mr. Mahon. New Mexico!

General BOOTH. Albuquerque, yes, sir. There are 16 courses conducted at Sandia. I have a detailed breakdown. The average student-days is 173,000 per year. That consists of individual and some unit training.

Mr. Mahon. How many military and civilian personnel are budgeted for 1962

General Booth. We have 2,129 civilians for 1962, and 6,072 military. The total number is 8,201, sir.

TASK FORCE

Mr. MAHON. What is Task Force 7?

General Booth. Task Force 7 was a logistic, or supporting, agency for the conduct of the atomic tests that were held in the Pacific.

Mr. Mahon. Is it out of existence now?

General Booth. There is one man left now, sir. It has been phased out.

Mr. FORD. Mr. Chairman, may I ask a question. How could you have just one man left?

General BOOTH. He is the one man who was the last head of Task Force 7, sir, and I have him in my headquarters performing other functions. Should we be required to reconstitute it, I have some know-how there. Actually, he is doing other duty.

Mr. Ford. He is not going to be forgotten?
General Booth. No, sir. He is doing another job.

MOTOR VEHICLES

Mr. Mahon. How many motor vehicles do you operate? What type do you have? Station wagons, automobiles, trucks, or what?

General Booth. We have all kinds, sir, from grading equipment to station wagons. The number of vehicles is 1,133, sir, in our total fleet.

Mr. MAHON. 1,133?
General Booth. Yes, sir.
Mr. Mahon. How many replacements are you seeking?

General Booth. We are asking for 123, sir, or 11 percent of the fleet.

Mr. MAHON. What is the main use of the bulk of these vehicles ? What are they employed for?

General Booth. If I can break down the number, sir, I think it will be easier. Of the total fleet, there are 233 passenger-carrying and 900 cargo-carrying out of a total of 1,133. The Defense Atomic Support Agency operates at the national stockpile sites and at the Sandia Base.

Mr. MINSHALL. Are all of these vehicles being used ?
General Booth. They are all being used, as far as I know, sir.

Mr. Flood. Are these 123 one-horse shays? Do they all fall apart at once,

all together? How would that develop ?
General Booth. I do not know how it developed.
Mr. Flood. That is a good answer.
General Booth. I have been here a short time.

Mr. Flood. Then don't try to explain it. Have somebody in your outfit who would know explain it. That is a pretty high percentage of a lot of vehicles to disintegrate at once for the purpose of replacement. You do not have to tell us now, but somebody will ask that question.

Mr. Mahon. The Captain might give us some information.

General Booth. We are replacing them on two criteria : The number of miles traveled, and also the age of the vehicle.

Mr. Flood. You are replacing on the basis of the Government criteria for the Department of the Army?

General BOOTH. Yes, sir.

Mr. Flood. It is interesting that 123 of these crates disintegrate at once, even under our formula as against your purposes of a lot of your hardware being not motor transport, motorcars, and things like that. You have a lot of hardware that you do not ride up and down the avenue with.

Captain CAMPBELL. I think, Mr. Flood, you have the answer yourself, and perhaps I can add two or three facts: The average age of our entire fleet is 6.1 years. It runs from 1941—we have some units of that year—to 1961, which are the newest. The average age of the 123 vehicles being replaced is 8.7 years.

Mr. Flood. You are under all sides of the formula.

Captain CAMPBELL. Yes, sir. We have two criteria which determine replacement, whichever is the more severe, age or the number of miles that the vehicle has traveled.

Mr. Flood. Under our rules you have 123 one-horse shays.
Captain CAMPBELL. I agree, sir.

Mr. Sikes. This is established procedure that is followed by all Government agencies, is it not?

General Booth. Yes, sir.

Mr. SIKES. Do you use the same percentage as the other departments?

General Booth. Yes, the same as the Department of the Army.

EFFECT OF BAN ON NUCLEAR TESTING

Mr. MAHON. Has anything of any special note developed in the last year in this program! Were there any revolutionary developments? What about that, Captain? You have been associated with this for some time.

Captain CAMPBELL. Mr. Chairman, the most remarkable new set of problems that we have has been due to the continuance of the test suspension. We have been closed off from going into the full-scale laboratory that the proving grounds represented, and as a result we have had to reorient our research program to attempt to obtain information to meet critical service needs in the field of weapons effects through laboratory, simulation, and computational work.

Mr. Mahon. Colonel, do you have anything to add to that?

Colonel LEDFORD. No, sir, except that during the last 2 years we have developed a DOD-wide coordinated program in this effort, at the direction of the Secretary of Defense, in an attempt to make up for the lack of full-scale testing.

Mr. FORD. Would the chairman yield?
Mr. MAHON. Yes.

Mr. Ford. The general impression would be that because we are no longer having tests that this Agency's work ought to diminish substantially. I recall 7 or 8 years ago when this budget was considered, you had a long list of projects. We went into the advance funding, we went into the current funding, we got the results of your tests and how much they cost. Under the current situation we cannot see anything as concrete as that. Now, why under these circumstances do

you need just about as much, if not more than you used to get?

General Booth. On the contrary, sir. I think our work has increased. Testing was not entirely our function. It was also a function of the Atomic Energy Commission.

Mr. Ford. You used to come up and justify the budget.

General Booth. For the logistic support of it, sir, and for weapons effects tests.

Mr. FORD. But the budget as I remember was about this size or bigger and now, with the testing ceased, we get a budget request of about the same amount.

General Booth. You will notice, sir, that our request for Research development test and evaluation funds for new weapons effects research has increased materially. This is due to the suspension of testing. The laboratory work that we are doing to replace the testing is now a major item.

Mr. Ford. What are we getting for this extra money?

General Booth. We have some 350 projects, sir, to try to get the answers that otherwise might be sought in full scale tests.

Mr. FORD. Can you give us any feel for what you are getting? Is it successful, is it unsuccessful ?

General Booth. We think it is going along quite well, sir. I understand that in industry, for example, if they get back a useful result from 5 percent of what they put into research they feel that this is pretty good.

Mr. Ford. A payoff of 5 percent in this business is a pretty small percentage where survival is involved.

General Booth. Yes, sir. We are in an unknown field of research, in basic things that we have not dealt with before. We feel we are getting answers to many of these problems. We are getting answers to some which will perhaps be better for us than what we would get on à test. We do not visualize that if we resume testing that our laboratory work will cease. We figure it will go down about 50 percent.

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