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YEAR BOOK

A RECORD OF EVENTS AND PROGRESS

1913

EDITED BY

FRANCIS G. WICKWARE, B. A., B.Sc.

UNDER DIRECTION OF A SUPERVISORY BOARD
REPRESENTING NATIONAL LEARNED SOCIETIES

PANTER

D-A

PRUGTUS

COLTA

D. APPLETON AND COMPANY

NEW YORK AND LONDON

HARVARD
UNIVERS

LIBRARY
de6, 13, 1950

COPYRIGHT, 1914, BY
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY

1
PREFACE

With the publication of this volume, covering the events and progress of 1913, the AMERICAN YEAR Book reaches its fourth issue. In general, the YEAR Book for 1913 follows the lines of the issue for 1912. The number and order of the departments are unchanged, but the subdivision of topics has been carefully revised as experience has demonstrated the possibility of improvement for the convenience of the user. New titles have been added to the list of permanent topics, and a few topics have been combined in a new arrangement. The scope of the work remains as defined in the preface to the first issue:

"The AMERICAN YEAR BOok is intended for the needs of writers and searchers of every kind. Because of its inclusion of scientific subjects, it has been necessary to limit the political and statistical material which is the staple of many annual handbooks; the book does not aim to treat everything that could be useful, but throughout to select from the enormous mass of details those things which, in the judgment of experts in each field, are most significant, most permanent in value, most likely to answer the searchers' questions."

“The AMERICAN YEAR BOOK does not aim to be a rival of other annual publications, either foreign or domestic. Details as to elections, the per. sonnel of state and municipal governments, political personalities, societies, and educational, literary, and scientific institutions have deliberately been reduced, in order to make room for material of a kind not found in most of the annuals. The AMERICAN YEAR Book appeals first of all to students in all fields, who wish a record of progress, not only in their own, but in other departments of human endeavor. It is intended, also, as a handbook for busy men, editors, contributors, professional men, teachers, scientific workers, engineers, practical and business men, who wish to verify or confirm points that arise in their minds; and to serve as a handy body of reference material settling questions of fact. Throughout the work the object has been to make the volume convenient for the user; hence the YEAB Book is arranged on a plan entirely unique in publications of this general character. It is intended to make reference easier by subdividing material into departments, by putting cognate subjects into close association, and by liberal cross references, making it easy to turn at once to the discussions relating to any subject. A full and carefully analyzed index is also provided in order to open up all remote connections and relations of a topic. This arrangement by groups of affiliated subjects, instead of haphazard or alphabetical succession of topics, is more convenient, and at the same time more scientific."

The Supervisory Board of representatives of national learned and scien. tific societies, officially known as the American Year Book Corprration, have continued actively to assist in the preparation of the YEAB Book. The members of this Board, who originally projected the work, remain individually responsible for the scope and content of the reviews of their respective fields; several are themselves contributors; many have coöperated with the Editor in securing contributors; and all have assisted the Editor with criticism and counsel. The Supervisory Board has now thirty-nine members, a complete list of whom will be found on a subsequent page, representing forty-three societies. Only one change in personnel has occurred during the year, the withdrawal of Prof. John Bassett Moore as representative of the American Society of International Law on his appointment as Counsellor to the Department of State, and the appointment in his place of Prof. George Grafton Wilson of Harvard University.

One hundred and twenty-eight contributors have coöperated in the preparation of this issue. All are experts in their special fields, and the complete list printed on a subsequent page contains many names of eminence.

To Americans the most important part of the year's record is, of course, that dealing with the inauguration of the Democratic Administration and the remarkable legislative achievements of the first session of the Sixty-third Congress. Internationally the year's record is of unusual interest, and the external relations of the United States, marked by events of prime importance, are comprehensively reviewed. American events and progress in politics, economics, sociology, the sciences, the arts, and the humanities, are surveyed with fullness and authority, and are placed in their proper perspective by a background of the significant events in foreign countries.

The acknowledgments of the Editor are due, not only to the contributors and members of the Supervisory Board, but also to the many public officials, Federal, state, and municipal, who have courteously responded to requests for statistical data, and to the readers who have offered disinterested criticism of previous issues. The Editor welcomes criticism and suggestions from any source on the selection of material and method of treatment, or on the more formal side of typography, make-up, and conveniences for users.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

THE AMERICAN YEAR Book is arranged in thirty-five departments, in which
are grouped articles on related subjects. In the following Table of Contents
only the main topics in each department are listed ; a complete Index will be
found at the end of the volume. SMALL CAPs indicate titles of separate articles,

PAGE

iii

I. AMERICAN HISTORY

Sixty-Second Congress.-Physical Valuation of Railroads.- Department

of Labor.-Immigration Bill.-Intoxicating Liquors in Interstate Com-

merce. -Seamen's Bill. ---Appropriations.—Sundry Civil Appropriation

Bill.- Lincoln Memorial.- Amendments to Federal Constitution. - Limi-

tation of Presidential Term.-Sixteenth Amendment.--Money Trust In-

vestigation.--Anti-Trust Law.-Impeachment of Judge Archbald.--End

of Republican Administration.—Foreign Relations. -President Taft's

Messages.--Budget Reform.-Reorganization of Customs Service.—Presi-

dent Taft's Speeches.-President Taft's Administration.--Democratic

Administration. -Electoral Vote.—Mr. Wilson before Inauguration. -

Anti-Trust Legislation in New Jersey.-Inauguration.--Cabinet.--For-

eign Relations.—Japanese Question in California.—Philippine Policy.-

Newspaper Publicity Law.-Diggs-Caminetti Case.- Mr. Bryan's Lec-

tures.-Sixty-Third Congress.- Representation of Parties.-Organization

of the Senate.- Organization of House of Representatives.---Progressive

Party.-Open Caucus.--Rules of Congress. First Session.---Arbitration

of Labor Disputes.-Appropriation Acts.-Sundry Civil Appropriation

Act.--Abolition of Commerce Court.-Seventeenth Amendment.---Ala-

bama Senatorship.-Lobby Inquiry.—Seamen's Bill.-Second Session.

President Wilson's Message. —Estimates for 1915.—Underwood Tariff

Act.-President Wilson's Message.- Democratic Theory of Tariff Re-

vision.--Tariff Rates.-Free List.-Income Tax.--Corporation Tax.-

Administrative Features. The Bili in Congress.--Tax on Cotton Futures.

-Imports in American Bottoms.-Federal Reserve Act.-President

Wilson's Message.--Owen-Glass Bill.--The Bill in Congress.---Bankers'

Attitud3.–Owen and Hitchcock Reports.- Impeachment of Governor

Sulzer.--Politics in New York.-Gettysburg Reunion.-Parcel Post.-

American Telephone and Telegraph Co. Dissolution.-Death of J. Pier-

pont Morgan.-Death of William J. Gaynor. POLITICS AND PARTIES.

Party Situation.-Accession of the Democratic Party.--Parties in Con-

gress.—Republican Party.-Progressive Party.-Election Results.

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