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overruled. In 1871 the other suit was dismissed for want of jurisdiction. The same year he made a motion to redocket the two cases, which was granted, and at the same time he filed a petition in which he sought to have the decree of 1862 set aside and a confirmation of title of both the tracts, but on March 9, 1872, these motions were refused. On March 12, 1872, he filed in the same court another petition seeking to set aside the decree of January 8, 1862. This motion was sustained. On March 13, 1872, Ruggles filed an amended petition, in which he sought confirmation of title to both tracts, and upon this a decree was the same day entered in favor of Ruggles. The land which was covered by the decree of 1862 was patented to Ruggles and the State has not since questioned the validity of the decree or Ruggles' title. The land in controversy here is located entirely in that portion of the grant which the court in its decree of 1862, declined to confirm in favor of Ruggles, but is included in that which purports to have been confirmed by the decree of March 13, 1872. The suits originally brought by Ruggles were authorized by special statute, to wit, the act of the legislature passed February 11, 1860. That act expired by its own limitations in 1865, and, as the Supreme Court of the State held, the District Court had thereafter no power to set aside the decree of January 8, 1862, or to enter the decree of March 13, 1872. The construction of the state statute and the power which it gave to the District Court of Webb County, and the length of time for the exercise of that power, are matters arising under state law, and the decision of the Supreme Court of the State is conclusive upon us and presents no question arising under the Federal Constitution. So the alleged confirmation of the decree of March 13, 1872, by an act of the legislature of 1881, is also a question arising in the construction of a state statute. The Supreme Court held that it applied only to those decrees which were rendered while the Webb County District Court had authority under the special statute, and did not apply to those which that court assumed to render thereafter.

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So far as any defense is based upon the grant made by the government of Spain in the year 1767, it involves no question of a Federal nature. Neither the validity nor construction of any treaty of the United States, nor the validity of the grant, were challenged. Indeed, it may be observed that during the progress of the case in the several state courts no appeal was made to the Federal Constitution, or to any acts of Congress save the one providing for the removal of cases from state to Federal courts.

It is apparent that the only Federal question which was presented, to wit, the right of removal, was correctly decided, and, therefore, the judgment of the District Court is





Nos. 220, 530. Argued April 11, 12, 1906.-Decided May 28, 1906.

An officer of a national bank owning stock therein knowing that it was

insolvent, although it did not actually fail for two years after the first transfer, transferred stock at various times to one who merely acted as his agent and who absolutely transferred a part thereof to various people of doubtful financial responsibility, all transfers being forthwith made on the books of the bank; after the failure an assessment was levied by the comptroller and the receiver sued the original owner for the assess

ment on all of the shares originally owned by him. Held, that: The gist of the shareholders' liability is the fraud implied in selling with

notice of insolvency and with intent to evade the double liability im

posed by $ 5139, Rev. Stat. The fact that the sale is made to an insolvent buyer is additional evidence

of fraudulent intent but not sufficient to constitute fraud unless as in

this case with notice of the bank's insolvency. While a shareholder selling with notice of the bank's insolvency may de

fend against a claim of double liability by showing that the vendee is solvent, and the creditors therefore are not affected by the sale, the

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burden of proof is on him to show such solvency, and that burden is not sustained when, as in this case, it does not satisfactorily appear that a decree for the amount of the assessment could have been collected by

ordinary process of law. A shareholder who haş transferred his stock to a mere agent is liable for the

full amount of the assessment on the stock so transferred standing in the agent's name at the time of the failure; but when he has absolutely transferred stock prior to the failure with knowledge of the bank's insolvency to persons financially unable to respond to the assessment and those transfers have been made on the books of the bank, he is liablo only for such amount of the assessment as may be necessary to satisfy creditors at the time of the transfer.

The first of these cases was an appeal from a decree of the Circuit Court of Appeals, rendered in a case wherein John W. McDonald, receiver of the First National Bank of Orleans, Nebraska, was complainant, and Charles P. Dewey and others were defendants, reversing a decree of the Circuit Court for the Northern District of Illinois, and remanding the case to that court with directions to enter a decree against Dewey for his full assessment on 25 shares of stock of the First National Bank, and for interest thereon. The second case is a cross appeal by Chauncey Dewey and his co-executor from the same decree.

Charles P. Dewey having died pending the litigation, the suits were revived in the name of Chauncey Dewey and Charles T. Killen, executors of his will.

The original was a bill in equity to enforce an assessment of $86 a share on 105 shares of stock of the First National Bank of Orleans, Neb., which failed on May 20, 1897. These shares, having been originally owned by Charles P. Dewey, were sold by him in December, 1894, and in January, 1895. Eighty shares were duly transferred on the books of the bank within a few weeks after the sale. The remaining twenty-five shares had been previously transferred by Dewey to his agent, Frederick L. Jewett, who was admitted to be irresponsible, and stood on the books of the bank in the name of Jewett, when the bank went into the hands of a receiver, on May 20, 1897, although they had been sold by Dewey. The bill alleged that Hedlund, the original receiver (since superseded by McDonald,

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the present receiver), was appointed and took possession on June 5, 1897, a fortnight after the failure of the bank; that on September 14, 1897, the Comptroller levied an assessment of $86 a share upon the capital stock; that on May 8, 1894, Charles P. Dewey was the owner of 105 shares of stock, and was registered as such; that the bank was then, and continuously remained, insolvent; that this insolvency was known to Dewey, who on that day, May 8, assigned 95 of these shares to the defendant Jewett, who was wholly irresponsible; that the transfer was colorable only, and made for the sole purpose of evading Dewey's liability as a stockholder; that Jewett thereafter, at various times, transferred 80 of the 95 shares to the several other defendants, and that on January 3, 1895, Dewey transferred his remaining 10 shares to Jewett, so that the bank failed said 105 shares were registered on the books of the bank in the names of the several transferees; that the several transfers were made at a time when the bank was insolvent, and known by Dewey to be so, for the purpose of evading liability for assessments, and to irresponsible persons.

The answer of Dewey contained a general denial of all material allegations, and set up that the transfers were outright and for the par value of the stock; that he had sold all his stock, and with the exception of the 25 shares, all transfers had been made on the books of the bank prior to its suspension.

The Circuit Court found that the sales of stock were all made through Jewett, who acted merely as the agent of Dewey and had no interest in the stock, but held it for Dewey in his name; that the bank failed about two years and five months after the sale by Dewey; that the bank was insolvent in December, 1894, and January, 1895, at the time Dewey sold the hundred and five shares, and that Dewey, who was vice president of the bank from 1892 to 1895, knew, or ought to have known, that fact; that three certificates, aggregating twenty-five shares, were not transferred on the books of the bank and still stood in the name of Jewett when the bank suspended; that the claims of the creditors of the bank, who were such when Dewey sold his

202 U.S.

Argument for the Receiver.

stock and remained such at the time of the failure, aggregated $11,839.15, of which, however, only $2,787.97 remained unsatisfied, and that of this the ratable share of Dewey was $585.48, for which sum a decree was rendered.

On appeal by the receiver to the Circuit Court of Appeals the decree of the Circuit Court was reversed and a new decree directed to be entered for the full amount of the assessment on the twenty-five shares standing in the name of Jewett at the time of the failure; that as to the eighty shares there could be no recovery, although the bank was insolvent at the time of the sale of the stock, and was known to be insolvent, and the transfer was made for the purpose of evading liability; but that there could be no recovery without proof of the additional fact that the several transferees were likewise insolvent; that as to the twenty-five shares Dewey remained liable, as he had not surrendered the certificate to the bank or given the officers such data as to enable them to make such transfer on its books. The case was remanded to the Circuit Court, with directions to render a decree against Dewey for his full assessment on twenty-five shares. From this decree both parties appealed to this court.

Mr. Frank M. Hall, with whom Mr. Roscoe Pound and Mr. E. E. Prussing were on the brief, for the receiver:

Upon proof of the insolvency of the bank at the time of the assignment, knowledge thereof by Dewey at that time, and that the purpose

and intent of the transfer was to escape his liability upon the stock in an insolvent bank, a decree should be rendered for the full assessment on 105 shares. Stuart v. Hayden, 169 U. S. 1; Earle v. Carson, 188 U. S. 42; National Bank v. Case, 99 U. S. 632; Bowden v. Johnson, 107 U. S. 251.

Under a proper construction of the National Banking Act, Dewey's estate should be held for the full assessment on 105 shares, upon the facts found. The purpose of the statutory provision as to sale of the stock is to permit sale of stock in a solvent bank, not to permit evasion of liability upon stock in


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