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“The said Tribunal shall first determine as to each vessel separately whether Great Britain has, by any act or omission, failed to fulfill any of the duties set forth in the foregoing three rules, or recognized by the principles of International Law not inconsistent with such rules, and shall certify such fact as to each of the said vessels. In case the Tri. bunal find that Great Britain has failed to fulfill any duty or duties as aforesaid, it may, if it think proper, proceed to award a sum in gross to be paid by Great Britain to the United States for all the claims referred

to it; and in such case the gross sum so awarded shall be paid in [25] coin by the Government of Great Britain to the Government *of

the United States, at Washington, within twelve months after the date of the award.

“ The award shall be in duplicate, one copy whereof shall be delivered to the agent of the United States for his Government, and the other copy shall be delivered to the agent of Great Britain for his Government.

" ARTICLE VIII. " Each Government shall pay its own agent and provide for the proper remuneration of the counsel employed by it and of the Arbitrator appointed by it, and for the expense of preparing and subunitting its case to the Tribunal. All other expenses connected with the arbi. tration shall be defrayed by the two Governments in equal moieties.

(6
ARTICLE IX.

“ The Arbitrators shall keep an accurate record of their proceedings, and may appoint and employ the necessary officers to assist them.

6 ARTICLE X.

"In case the Tribunal finds that Great Britain has failed to fulfill any duty or duties as aforesaid, and does not award a sum in gross,

the High Contracting Parties agree that a Board of Assessors [26] shall be appointed to ascertain and determine what * claims are

valid, and what amount or amounts shall be paid by Great Britain to the United States on account of the liability arising from such failure, as to each vessel, according to the extent of such liability as decided by the Arbitrators.

* The Board of Assessors shall be constituted as follows: One member thereof shall be named by the President of the United States, one member thereof shall be named by Her Britannic Majesty, and one member thereof shall be named by the Representative at Washington of His Majesty the King of Italy; and in case of a vacancy happening from any cause, it shall be filled in the same manner in which the original appointment was made.

" As soon as possible after such nominations the Board of Assessors shall be organized in Washington, with power to hold their sittings there, or in New York, or in Boston. The members thereof shall sever. ally subscribe a solemn declaration that they will impartially and carefully examine and decide, to the best of their judgment and according to justice and equity, all matters submitted to them, and shall forthwith proceed, under such rules and regulations as they may prescribe, to the investigation of the claims which shall be presented to them by the Government of the United States, and shall examine and

decide upon them in such order and manner as they may think [27] *proper, but upon such evidence or information only as shall be furnished by or on behalf of the Governments of the United States and of Great Britain respectively. They shall be bound to hear on each separate claim, if required, one person on behalf of each Government, as counsel or agent. A majority of the Assessors in each case shall be sufficient for a decision.

“ The decision of the Assessors shall be given upon each claim in writing, and shall be signed by them respectively and dated.

“ Every claim shall be presented to the Assessors within six months from the day of their first meeting, but they may, for good cause shown, extend the time for the presentation of any claim to a further period not exceeding three months.

“ The Assessors shall report to each Government, at or before the espiration of one year from the date of their first meeting, the amount of claims decided by them up to the date of such report; if further claims then remain undecided, tbey shall make a further report at or before the expiration of two years from the date of such first meeting; and in case any claims remain undetermined at that time, they shall make a final report within a further period of six months.

" The report or reports shall be made in duplicate, and one copy thereof shall be delivered to the *Secretary of State of the [28] United States, and one copy thereof to the Representative of Her Britannic Majesty at Washington.

“ All sums of money which may be awarded under this Article shall be payable at Washington, in coin, within twelve months after the de. livery of each report.

“ The Board of Assessors may employ such clerks as they shall think necessary.

nses of the Board of Assessors shall be borne equally by the two Governments, and paid from time to time, as may be found expedient, on the production of accounts certified by the Board. The remuneration of the Assessors shall also be paid by the two Goveruments in equal moieties in a similar manner.

66 The exi

6 ARTICLE XI.

"The High Contracting Parties engage to consider the result of the proceedings of the Tribunal of Arbitration and of the Board of Assessors, should such Board be appointed, as a full, perfect, and final settlement of all the claims hereinbefore referred to; and further engage that every such claim, whether the same may or may not have been presented to the notice of, made, preferred, or laid before the Tribunal or Board, shall, from and after the conclusion of the proceedings of the Tribunal *or Board, be considered and treated as finally [29] settled, barred, and henceforth inadmissible.” In accordance with the provisions of Article III of the Treaty, the

United States have the honor to lay before the Tribunal of states will atten: Arbitration this their “ Printed Case,” accompanied by the

documents, the official correspondence, and other evidence on which they rely. They propose to show, by a historical statement of the course pursued by the British Government toward the United States, from the outbreak of the insurrection in the Southern States of the United States, that there was on the part of the British Government a studied unfriendliness or fixed predisposition adverse to the United States, which furnished a constant motive for the several acts of omis. sion and commission, hereinafter complained of, as inconsistent with its duty as a neutral.

What the United

to establish.

Having adduced the evidence of this fact, the United States will next endeavor to indicate to the Tribunal of Arbitration what they deem to have been the duties of Great Britain toward the United States, in respect to the several cruisers which will be named in this paper.

They will then endeavor to show that Great Britain failed to perform those duties, both generally and specifically, as to each of the

cruisers; and that such failure involved the liability to remunerate [30] *the United States for losses thus inflicted upon them, upon their

citizens, and upon others protected by their tlag. Lastly, they will endeavor to satisfy the Tribunal of Arbitration that it can find, in the testimony which will be offered by the United States, ample material for estimating the amount of such injuries, and they will ask the Tribunal to exercise the powers conterred upon it by Article VII of the Treaty, in awarding “a sum in gross, to be paid by Great Britain to the United States, for all the claims referred to.”

In April, 1869, the President communicated to the Senate a mass of official correspondence and other papers relating to those claims, which was printed in five volumes. These, and two uments, and usw ros additional volumes, containing further correspondence, evi. ferred to. dience, and documents accompany this case. The whole will form the documents, the official correspondence, and the other evidence on which (the United States relies," which is called for by Article III of the Treaty. Reference will be made throughout this paper to these volumes thus: “Vol. 1, page 1,” &c., &c., &c. The United States understand, however, that they may, under the terms of the Treaty, present hereafter “ atlditional documents, correspondence, and evidence," and they reserve the right to do so.

S. Ex. 31—2

Evidence ind doc.

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THE UNFRIENDLY COURSE PURSUED BY GREAT BRITAIN

TOWARD THE UNITED STATES FROM THE OUTBREAK TO THE CLOSE OF THE INSURRECTION.

Relations of the l'nited States with Greit Britain prior

In 1860 the United States had been an independent nation for a period of eighty-four years, and acknowledged as such by Great Britain for a period of seventy-seven years.

During this period, while sharing to a remarkable extent to 1860. in the general prosperity of the Christiau Powers, they bad so conducted their relations toward those Powersasto merit, and they believed that they had secured, the good-will and esteem of all. Their prosperity was the result of honest thriít; their exceptional increase of population was the fruit of a voluntary immigration to their shores; and the vast extension of their domain was acquired by purchase and not be conquest.

From no people had they better right to expect a just judgment than from the people of Great Britain. In 1783, the War of Separation had been closed by a treaty of peace, which adjusted all the questions then

pending between the two Governments. In 1794, new questions [32] having arisen, *growing out of the efforts of France to make the

ports of the United States a base of hostile operations against Great Britain, a new treaty was made, at the instance of the United States, by which all the difficulties were arrangedi satisfactorily to Great Britain, and at the same time so as to preserve the neutrality and the honor of the United States. In the same year, also, the first neutrality act was passed by Congress, prescribing rules and establishing the modes of proceeding to enable the United States to perform their duties as a neutral toward Great Britain and other belligerents. In 1812, they were forced into war with Great Britain, by the claim of that Power to impress seamen on the high seas from vessels of the United States. After three years the war ceased, and the claim has never since been practically enforced. In 1818, they met British negotiators more than half-way in arranging disputed points about the North American Fisheries. In 1827, having added to their own right of discovery the French and Spanislı titles to the Pacific coast, they voluntarily agreed to a joint occupation of a disputed portion of this territory, rather than resort to the last arbitrament of nations. In 1838, when a serious rebelliou pre

vailed in Canada, the Congress of the United States, at the request [33] of Great Britain, * passed an act authorizing the Government to

exercise exceptional powers to maintain the national neutrality. In 1812 the Government of the United States met a British Envoy in a spirit of conciliation, and adjusted by agreement the disputed boundary between Maine and the British Possessions. In 1846 they accepted the proposal of Great Britain, made at their own suggestion, to adopt the forty-ninth parallel as a compromise line between the two Columbias, and to give to Great Britain the whole of Vancouver's Island. In 1850 they waived, by the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty, the right of acquisition on the Isthmus, across which for many years the line of communication

For an abstract of this act see Vol. IV, pp. 102, 103.

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