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duly authorized to supply their places, shall have the right, as such, to sit as judges and arbitrators in such differences as may arise between the captains and crews of the vessels belonging to the nation whose interests are committed to their charge, without the interference of the local authorities, unless the conduct of the crews, or of the captain, should disturb the order or tranquillity of the country; or the said consuls, vice consuls, or commercial agents should require their assistance to cause their decisions to be carried into effect or supported. It is, however, understood, that this species of judgment, or arbitration, shall not deprive the contending parties of the right they have to resort, on their return, to the judicial authority of their country.(1)
854. The said consuls, vice consuls, or commercial agents, are authorized to require the assistance of the local authorities for the arrest, detention, and imprisonment of the deserters from the ships of war and merchant vessels of their country; and, for this purpose, they shall apply to the competent tribunals, judges, and officers, and shall, in writing, demand said deserters, proving, by the exhibition of the registers of the vessels, the rolls of the crews, or by other official documents, that such individuals formed part of the crews, and on this reclamation being thus substantiated, the surrender shall not be refused.(2)
855. Such deserters, when arrested, shall be placed at the disposal of the said consuls, vice consuls, or commercial agents, and may be confined in the public prisons, at the request and cost of those who claim them, in order to be sent to the vessels to which they belonged, or to others of the same country. But, if not sent back within the space of two months, reckoping from the day of their arrest, they shall be set at liberty, and shall not be again arrested for the same cause. (2)
It is understood, however, that, if the deserter should be found to have committed any crime or offence, bis surrender may be delayed until the tribunal before which the case shall be depending, shall have pronounced its sentence, and such sentence shall have been carried into effect.(2)
856. In case any vessel of one of the high contracting parties shall have been stranded or shipwrecked, or shall have suffered any other damage on the coasts of the dominions of the other, every aid and assistance shall be given to the persons shipwrecked or in danger, and passports shall be granted to them to return to their country. The shipwrecked vessels and merchandise, or their proceeds, if the same shall have been sold, shall be restored to their owners, or to those entitled thereto, if claimed within a year and a day, upon paying such costs of salvage as would be paid by national vessels in the same circumstances; and the salvage companies shall not compel the acceptance of their services, except in the same cases, and after the same delays, as shall be granted to the captains and crews of national vessels. Moreover, the respective governments will take care that these companies do not commit any vexatious or arbitrary acts.(3)
857. It is agreed that vessels arriving directly from the United States of America, at a port within the dominions of his majesty the king of Sweden and Norway, or from the territories of his said majesty in Europe, at a port of the United States, and provided with a bill of health granted by an officer having competent power to that effect, at the port whence such vessels chall have sailed, setting forth that no malignant or contagious diseases prevailed in that port, shall be subjected to no other quarantine than such as
(3) Ibid. Art. 15.
(1) Treaty 1827, Art. 13. (2) Ibid. Art. 14.
may be necessary for the visit of the health officer of the port where such vessel shall have arrived ; after which said vessels shall be allowed immediately to enter and unload their cargoes; provided always, that there shall be on board no person who, during the voyage, shall have been attacked with any malignant or contagious diseases; that such vessels shall not, during their passage, have communicated with any vessel, liable, itself, to undergo a quarantine; and that the country whence they came shall not, at that time, be so far infected or suspected, that, before their arrival, an ordinance had been issued, in consequence of which all vessels coming from that country should be considered as suspected, and consequently subject to quarantine (1)
858. Considering the remoteness of the respective countries of the two high contracting parties, and the uncertainty resulting therefrom with respect to the various events which may take place; it is agreed that a merchant vessel belonging to either of them, which may be bound to a port supposed, at the time of its departure, to be blockaded, shall not, however, be captured or condemned for having attempted, a first time, to enter said port, unless it can be proved that said vessel could, and ought to have learned, during its voyage, that the blockade of the place in question still continued. But all vessels which, after having been warned off once, shall, during the same voyage, attempt a second time to enter the same blockaded port, during the continuance of said blockade, shall then subject themselves to be detained and condemned.(2)
859. The present treaty shall continue in force for ten years, counting from the day of the exchange of the ratifications; and if before the expiration of the first nine years, neither of the high contracting parties shall have announced, by an official notification, to the other, its intention to arrest the operation of said treaty, it shall remain binding for one year beyond that time, and so on, until the expiration of the twelve morths which will follow a similar notification, whatever the time at which it may take place.(3)
860. Certain relations of proximity and ancient connexions having led to regulations for the importation of the products of the kingdoms of Sweden and Norway into the Grand Dutchy of Finland, and that of the products of Finland into Sweden and Norway, in vessels of the respective countries, by special stipulations of a treaty still in force, and whose renewal forms, at this time, the subject of a negotiation between the courts of Sweden and Norway and Russia, said stipulations being, in no manner, connected with the existing regulations for foreign commerce in general, the two high contracting parties, anxious to remove from their commercial relations all kinds of ambiguity or motives of discussion, have agreed that the eighth, ninth, and tenth arti. cles of the present treaty shall not be applicable either to the navigation and commerce above mentioned, nor, consequently, to the exceptions in the gene. ral tariff of custom-house duties, and in the regulations of navigation result. ing therefrom, nor to the special advantages which are, or may be, granted to the importation of tallow and candles from Russia, founded upon equivalent advantages granted by Russia on certain articles of importation from Sweden and Norway.(4)
(1) Treaty 1827, Art. 16.
(3) Ibid. Art. 19.
RELATIONS WITH DENMARK.
Commercial favours granted by one tions, which shall not extend to party to other nations, to be grant- all other nations
864 ed to the other party.
861 Similar duties on vessels of both parEquality and reciprocity of com- ties, passing the Belts
865 merce and navigation
862 Regulations respecting certain DanImports and exports of foreign com
866 modities, allowed by the respec. Taxes, &c. to be the same on the tive parties in vessels of each
personal property, of the citizens other, on like terms as in their of both parties, in the dominions own vessels 863 of each
867 Imports and exports of the produc- Provision for appointment of consuls 868
tions of the respective parties, Exequater to be granted to consuls 869 allowed, into their respective Privileges of consuls relative to taxes countries upon equal terms. No
870 prohibition to be imposed on im- Duration of treaty
871 ports and exports of such produc
ART. 861. The contracting parties, desiring to live in peace and harmony with all the other nations of the earth, by means of a policy frank and equally friendly with all, engage, mutually, not to grant any particular favour to other nations, in respect of commerce and navigation, which shall not immediately become common to the other party, who shall enjoy the same freely, if the concession were freely made, or on allowing the same compensation, if the concession were conditional.(1)
862. The contracting parties being likewise desirous of placing the commerce and navigation of their respective countries on the liberal basis of perfect equality and reciprocity, mutually agree that the citizens and subjects of each may frequent all the coasts and countries of the other, (with the exception hereafter provided for in the sixth article,) and reside and trade there in all kinds of produce, manufactures, and merchandise; and they shall enjoy all the rights, privileges, and exemptions, in navigation and commerce, which native citizens or subjects do, or shall enjoy, submitting themselves to the laws, decrees and usages, there established, to which native citizens or subjects are subjected. But it is understood that this article does not include the coasting trade of either country, the regulation of which is reserved by the parties, respectively, according to their owo separate laws.(2)
863. They, likewise, agree that whatever kind of produce, manufacture, or merchandise, of any foreign country, can be, from time to time, lawfully imported into the United States, in vessels belonging wholly to the citizens thereof, may be also imported in vessels wholly belonging to the subjects of Denmark; and that no higher or other duties upon the tonnage of the vessel or her cargo shall be levied and collected, whether the importation be made in vessels of the one country or of the other. And, in like manner, that whatever kind of produce, manufacture, or merchandise, of any foreign country, can be, from time to time, lawfully imported into the dominions of the king of Denmark, in the vessels thereof, (with the exception hereafter mentioned in the sixth article,) may be also imported in vessels of the United States; and that no higher or other duties upon the tonnage of the vessel or her cargo shall be levied and collected, whether the importation be made in
(1) Treaty 1826, Art. 1.
(2) Ibid. Art. 2.
vessels of the one country or of the other. And they further agree, that whatever may be lawfully exported or re-exported from the one country in its own vessels, to any foreign country, may, in like manner, be exported or re-exported in the vessels of the other country. And the same bounties, duties, and drawbacks, shall be allowed and collected, whether such exportation or re-exportation be made in vessels of the United States or of Den. mark. Nor shall higher or other charges of any kind be imposed, in the ports of one party, on vessels of the other, than are, or shall be, payable in the same port by native vessels (1)
864. No higher or other duties shall be imposed on the importation into the United States of any article, the produce or manufacture of the domin. ions of his majesty the king of Denmark; and no higher or other duties shall be imposed on the importation into the said dominions of any article, the produce or manufacture of the United States, than are, or shall be, pay. able on the like articles, being the produce or manufacture of any other fo. reign country. Nor shall any higher or other duties or charges be imposed in either of the two countries, on the exportation of any articles to the United States, or to the dominions of his majesty the king of Denmark, respectively, than such as are, or may be, payable on the exportation of the like articles to any other foreign country. Nor shall any prohibition be imposed on the exportation or importation of any articles, the produce or manufacture of the United States, or of the dominions of his majesty the king of Denmark, 10 or from the territories of the United States, or to or from the said dominions, which shall not equally extend to all other nations.(2)
865. Neither the vessels of the United States nor their cargoes shall, when they pass the Sound or the Belts, pay higher or other duties than those which are or may be paid by the most favoured nation.(3)
866. The present convention shall not apply to the northern possessions of his majesty the king of Denmark; that is to say, Iceland, the Ferroé islands, and Greenland, nor to places situated beyond the Cape of Good Hope, the right to regulate the direct intercourse with which possessions and places is reserved by the parties respectively. And it is further agreed that this convention is not to extend to the direct trade between Denmark and the West India colonies of his Danish majesty, but in the intercourse with those colonies, it is agreed that whatever can be lawsully imported into or exported from the said colonies in vessels of one party, from or to the ports of the United States, or from or to the ports of any other foreign coun. try, may, in like manner, and with the same duties and charges, applicable to vessel and cargo, be imported into or exported from the said colonies in vessels of the other party.(4)
867. The United States and his Danish majesty mutually agree, that no higher or other duties, charges, or taxes of any kind, shall be levied in the territories or dominions of either party, upon any personal property, money, or effects, of their respective citizens or subjects, on the removal of the same from their territories or dominions, reciprocally, either upon the inheritance of such property, money, or effects, or otherwise, than are or shall be paya. ble in each state, upon the same, when removed by a citizen or subject of such state respectively.(5)
868. To make more effectual the protection which the United States and his Danish majesty shall afford in future, to the navigation and commerce of
(1) Treaty 1826, Art, 3.
(4) Ibid. Art. 6.
their respective citizens and subjects, they agree mutually to receive and admit consuls and vice consuls in all the ports open to foreign commerce, who shall enjoy in them all the rights, privileges, and immunities of the consuls and vice consuls of the most favoured nation, each contracting party, however, remaining at liberty to except those ports and places in which the admission and residence of such consuls may not seem convenient.(1)
869. In order that the consuls and vice consuls of the contracting parties may enjoy the rights, privileges, and immunities, which belong to them, by their public character, they shall, before entering on the exercise of their functions, exhibit their commission or patent in due form to the governo ment to which they are accredited ; and having obtained their exequater, which shall be granted gratis, they shall be held and considered as such by all the authorities, magistrates, and inhabitants, in the consular district in which they reside(2)
870. It is likewise agreed, that the consuls and persons attached to their necessary service, they not being natives of the country in which the consul resides, shall be exempt from all public service, and also from all kind of taxes, imposts, and contributions, except those which they shall be obliged to pay, on account of commerce, or their property, to which inhabitants, native and foreign, of the country in which such consuls reside, are subject, being in every thing besides subject to the laws of the respective states. The archives and papers of the consulate shall be respected inviolably, and, under no pretext whatever, shall any magistrate seize or in any way interfere with them.(3)
871. The present convention shall be in force for ten years from the date hereof, and further until the end of one year after either of the contracting parties shall have given notice to the other of its intention to terminate the same; each of the contracting parties reserving to itself the right of giving such notice to the other at the end of the said term of ten years; and it is bereby agreed between them, that on the expiration of one year after such notice shall have been received by either from the other party, this conven. tion and all the provisions thereof shall altogether cease and determine.(4)
RELATIONS WITH RUSSIA.
Points on the Pacific ocean open to Liberty of commerce and navigation,
877 Establishments by one party not to Duties of tonnage, light, &c. regube resorted to by the other with. lated
878 out permission 873 Imports, and duties thereon
879 Limits of the establishments of the Exports, and duties thereon
880 respective parties
874 No higher duties to be imposed on Trade with the natives, and fishing the produce, &c. of the respective
allowed to both parties on the countries, than on like articles coast, &c.
875 from other countries. All prohi. Trade in spirits and arms, &c. with bitions to be general
881 natives prohibited-prohibition, Exceptions of the coasting trade 882 how enforced
876 Consuls to be admitted their pow
(1) Treaty 1825, Art. 8.
(3) Ibid. Art. 10.