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CHAPTER IV.

SALIENT CHARACTERISTICS.

Literacy-Conjugal condition-Visits abroad-Age classification of employees-. [Text Tables 78 to 84 and General Tables 56 to 60].

LITERACY.

The following table shows, by general nativity and race, the percentage of male copper-mine employees who could read and the percentage who could read and write:

TABLE 78.-Per cent of male employees who read and per cent who read and write, by general nativity and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only races with 40 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Of 5,557 male employees, information for whom is contained in the above table, 95.4 per cent can read and 93.7 per cent can both read and write. When compared with the native-born of foreign father, the foreign-born show a slightly smaller proportion of males who can both read and read and write. Of the native-born of foreign father, those whose fathers were born in England and Finland show a pro

portion of 100 per cent who can both read and write, and no representatives of this group show less than 90 per cent of males who can read and write. Of the foreign-born, the Norwegians show the largest proportion, 100 per cent, who can read and write. Over 90 per cent each of the Canadians other than French, English, Finns, German, Slovenians, North Italians, Magyars, Poles, and Swedes can read. The proportion of each race who can read and write is only a trifle smaller than that for each race who can read. The French Canadians show the smallest proportion who can read and also the smallest proportion who can both read and write.

CONJUGAL CONDITION.

The percentage of male employees 20 years of age or over who were in each conjugal condition is set forth according to general nativity and race in the table next presented:

TABLE 79.-Per cent of male employees 20 years of age or over in each conjugal condition, by general nativity and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only races with 40 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Of the total number of male employees reported in the above table 59.3 per cent are married and only 1.8 per cent are widowed, leaving 38.9 per cent who are single. The foreign-born show a slightly larger proportion of married and widowed males than do the native-born of foreign father. Of the foreign-born males the Norwegians, with 82.5 per cent married, show the largest proportion in that conjugal condition. The French Canadians show a proportion that is almost as large, and are followed in the order named by the Germans, Canadians other than French, South Italians, and Swedes, of each of which

races more than 70 per cent are married and less than 6 per cent are widowed. The Slovenians, with 51 per cent, report the smallest proportion of married persons. None of the South Italians or Poles and less than 1 per cent each of the North Italians and Slovenians are widowed, but 22.5 per cent of the Irish males are in that condition.

The following table divides the totals of the table immediately preceding and shows by age groups and by general nativity and race the percentage of male employees in each conjugal condition:

TABLE 80.—Per cent of male employees in each conjugal condition, by age groups and by general nativity and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only races with 100 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Information reported for a total of 5,253 male employees who are 20 years of age or over is contained in the above table. Of that total number 59.3 per cent are married and only 1.8 per cent are widowed, leaving 38.9 per cent who are single. Of the males who are between the ages of 20 and 29, only 31.5 per cent are married and less than 1 per cent are widowed. In this age group slight differences exist between the proportion of the foreign-born and that of the nativeborn of foreign father who are married or who are single. The native-born of native father, whites, show only 29 per cent to be married and none who are widowed. Of the foreign-born males in this specific period of age, the French Canadians, closely followed by the Swedes, show the largest, and the English the smallest proportion of married males. Of the males whose age is between 30 and

44 years, 82.4 per cent are married and 1.5 per cent are widowed, leaving but 16.1 per cent who are single. Of the native whites born of native father none are widowed and 87 per cent are married. Of the foreign-born males in this age group, the Croatians, with 94.3 per cent, show the largest proportion of married persons. All of the other foreign-born race groups, except the Finnish and North Italian, report between 80 and 90 per cent of the males as married. The proportion for the North Italians, 77.3 per cent, is smaller than that shown by any other race. Less than 5 per cent of the total number of males who are 45 years of age or over are single. The proportion married is 88.7 per cent, while 6.5 per cent are widowed. The foreign-born show a slightly larger proportion of married and widowed males than do the native-born of foreign father. Of the foreign-born races in this age group, the English, Finnish, and North Italians each show slightly more than 91 per cent of married males. Each of the other foreign-born races shows a proportion that is not lower than 80 per cent. The smallest proportion of married males, 83.3 per cent, is shown by the Slovenians. The total column is a combination of the foregoing information.

Although the greater part of the foreign-born mine workers are married, the significant fact in this connection is that a considerable proportion of the married males left their wives abroad when they immigrated to this country. This condition of affairs is disclosed by the following table, which shows by race of husband the percentage of foreign-born husbands who reported wife in the United States and the percentage who reported wife abroad:

TABLE 81.-Per cent of foreign-born husbands who report wife in United States and per cent who report wife abroad, by race of husband.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only races with 40 or more husbands reporting. The total, however, is for all foreignborn.]

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Of 2,595 foreign-born husbands reporting, 75.1 per cent have wives in the United States and 24.9 per cent have wives abroad. The Magyar and Croatian husbands show a much higher per cent having wives abroad than any of the other nationalities shown in the table. The North Italians, Slovenians, and South Italians

show 40 per cent or over of husbands having wives abroad, while the Polish husbands show slightly over 20 per cent and the Finnish and English husbands somewhat less than 20 per cent having wives abroad. The Canadian other than French and German husbands report all wives in the United States, while the French Canadian and Swedish husbands show considerably over 90 per cent of wives in the United States.

The tendency on the part of the married mine workers who immigrated without their wives to send for them after designated periods of residence in this country is set forth in the table next presented, which shows, by race of husband and by years husband has been in the United States, the per cent of foreign-born husbands who report wife abroad.

TABLE 82.-Per cent of foreign-born husbands who report wife abroad, by race of husband and by years husband has been in the United States.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes only races with 100 or more husbands reporting.]

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Of the total number of foreign-born husbands shown in the foregoing table 63.2 per cent of the Croatian, 44.2 per cent of the North Italian, 19.5 per cent of the Finnish, 16.8 per cent of the English, and 0.4 per cent of the French Canadian report wives abroad. Of the husbands who have been in the United States under five years. and from five to nine years, the Croatians show the highest percentage; the Finns show the lowest percentage in the first group, while the French Canadians have no husbands of from five to nine years' residence reporting wives abroad. Of husbands who have been in the United States ten years or over the North Italians show the highest percentage and the French Canadians the lowest percentage having wives abroad.

VISITS ABROAD.

The extent to which employees of foreign birth visit their native country for periods of varying duration is exhibited in the table next submitted. It shows, by years in the United States and race, the visits abroad made by foreign-born male employees.

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