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ber to have been engaged in mining, while the same races are the only ones showing less than 50 per cent of their number as having been engaged in farming or as farm laborers. The English and Finns are the only races showing less than 10 per cent as having been engaged in hand trades, and the French Canadians and English are the only ones showing as high as 10 per cent as having been engaged in general labor. Only one race, the Croatian, shows as high as 10 per cent who were engaged in occupations other than those specified in the table, and less than 5 per cent of each race were engaged in trade.

OCCUPATIONS ENTERED BY IMMIGRANTS.

Most of the immigrants were at first employed as machine miners, but the Cornishmen were not slow in showing their especial adaptability for mining work, and were soon given positions as foremen and bosses. Many of the original Cornishmen are now occupying positions as foremen and bosses and drawing salaries running from $85 to $125 per month. The Finns also have made progress in this industry, and, while they have not yet reached the positions occupied by the Cornishmen, a great many of them have been advanced in their work and some are occupying positions as foremen. The North and South Italians, Magyars, Finns, Slovaks, and Poles are mostly employed as machine miners and are doing other underground work. The native Americans are principally outside men employed in the machine house, although some are employed underground as foremen.

WEEKLY EARNINGS.

The range in amount of earnings of the employees of the copper mining and smelting industry is exhibited by the following table, which shows, by general nativity and race, the per cent of male employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified amount per week:

TABLE 75.—Per cent of male employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified amount per week, by general nativity and race.*

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only races with 80 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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*This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

TABLE 75.-Per cent of male employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified amount per week, by general nativity and race-Continued.

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Of the 5,371 males 18 years of age or over employed in the coppermining industry in Michigan, 97.6 per cent earn $10 or over, 75.9 per cent $12.50 or over, 36 per cent $15 or over, 5.7 per cent $17.50 or over, and less than 5 per cent as high as $20 per week. The foreignborn report a larger proportion than the native-born of foreign father, who in turn show a larger proportion than the native-born of native father, except in the group $5 or over earning each specified amount under $17.50 per week, while the foreign-born shows the smallest and either the native-born of native father or the native-born of foreign father the largest proportion earning each specified amount from $17.50. Comparing the foreign-born by race it is seen that all of the Magyars, Slovenians, and Swedes, and over 98 per cent of each other race, earn $10 or over per week. Over 75 per cent of each race, except the French Canadian and Finnish, earn $12.50 or over per week, while the English and Swedish, are the only races showing as high as 50 per cent earning $15 or over. The English and German are the only races showing as high as 5 per cent earning $20 or over per week.

RELATION BETWEEN PERIOD OF RESIDENCE AND EARNING ABILITY.

The progress of male employees of foreign birth in industrial efficiency and earning ability after designated periods of residence in the United States is considered in the next series of tabulations. The first table presented, which immediately follows, shows, by race of individual and length of residence in the United States, the per cent of earnings per week of foreign-born male employees who were 18 years of age or over. By grouping the proportions in each period of residence under the several races a study is possible of the progress made by the foreign-born male employees of each race.

TABLE 76.-Per cent of foreign-born male employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified amount per week, by race and length of residence in the United States.*

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes only races with 200 or more males reporting.]

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*This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

All of the French Canadians with a period of residence in the United States of less than five years earn $10 or over and none earn as high as $15 per week. All of those with a period of residence of from five to nine years earn $10 or over and none earn as high as $20 per week. All of those with a period of residence of ten years or over earn $7.50 or over and none earn as high as $25 per week. The proportion of Croatians earning $10 or over or $12.50 or over per week is largest for those with a period of residence of from five to nine years and smallest for those with a period of residence of ten years or over. The proportion earning $15 or over, $17.50 or over, or $20 or over per week increases with length of residence in the United States, although none of those with a period of residence of ten years or over earn as high as $17.50. All the English earn $7.50 or over per week, and the proportion earning $12.50 or over and $15 or over is largest for those with a period of residence of from five to nine years. The proportion earning $17.50 increases with length of residence in the United States and the porportion earning $20 or over and $25 or over is largest for those ten years or over in this country and smallest for those from five to nine. The proportion of Finns earning $10 or over or $12.50 or over per week is largest for those with a period of residence of from five to nine years and smallest for those with a period of residence of ten years or over, while the proportion earning $15 or over is largest for the five to nine year period and smallest for those here less than five years; $17.50 or over or $20 or over increases with length of residence. Those with a period of residence of ten years or over show 99.7 per cent earning $7.50 or over per week, as compared with 100 per cent of those with

each other specified period of residence. A decrease is shown between the proportion of North Italians with a period of residence of from five to nine years and those with a period of residence of from ten years or over earning each specified amount above $10 a week, except $15 or over.

The next table presents the same data as the preceding one, but in a different form:

TABLE 77.-Comparative earnings per week of foreign-born male employees 18 years of age or over, by race and length of residence in the United States.*

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes only races with 200 or more males reporting.]

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*This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

Of those of each race, who have been in the United States less than five years, the above table shows that all of the French Canadians and over 98 per cent of those of each other race earn $10 or over per week. The French Canadians show the smallest and the Croatians or North Italians the largest proportion earning $12.50 or over. None of the French Canadians and 58.9 per cent of the English earn $15 Less than 5 per cent of those of each race earn as high as $17.50 per week. All of the French Canadians, English, and North Italians, and over 99 per cent of the Croatians and Finns, who have been in the United States from five to nine years, earn $10 or over per week. The English show the largest and the French Canadians the smallest proportion earning $12.50 or over or $15 or over, while the French Canadians show the largest and the Finnish group the

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smallest proportion earning $17.50 or over. None of the French Canadians or English, as compared with 2.2 per cent of the Croatians and less than 1 per cent of the Finns or North Italians, earn as high as $20 per week. Of those of each race who have been in the United States ten years or over the Croatians and Finns are the only ones showing a proportion earning below $7.50. The English show the largest proportion earning each other specified amount and is the only race showing a proportion earning as high as $25. None of the North Italians earn as high as $20 and none of the Croatians earn as high as $17.50 per week. The French Canadians show the smallest proportion earning $12.50 or over and $15 or over per week.

HOURS WORKED PER DAY AND PER WEEK.

At each of the mining establishments studied the hours of work are as follows: There are two shifts, one working a night turn and one a day turn. Each turn is of nine hours, the remaining hours out of the twenty-four (six hours) being spent in idleness. The shifts alternate from week to week. The plants are usually idle half a day on Saturday and all day on Sunday. During the past year the miners of the district have worked on full time and there have been few shut downs.

EMPLOYERS' OPINION OF IMMIGRANT EMPLOYEES.

In the opinion of employers interviewed, the Cornishmen and Finns are the most adaptable workmen and are making the best citizens. The Magyars are slowly developing toward good citizenship, while the North Italians are less interested in civic government than any of the other immigrant races employed. It was stated by the employers that the Cornishmen are the most efficient and the most adaptable of the various race groups. The Finns are second in this respect, while the North Italians and Magyars have been found available and efficient for the lower positions requiring a little degree of skill. In this connection it should be noted that the North Italian in this section is held in much greater respect than is the South Italian. There is little or no prejudice against the North Italian.

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