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CALUMET.

Calumet is situated in Houghton County, on the northern peninsula of Michigan. The only industry in the community is the plant of a copper mining company which is reputed to be the largest in the world, and which offers employment to approximately 4,500 men. This plant began operations about twelve years ago. Until that time there had been no inhabitants in the present community. With the opening of this very resourceful mine, however, there was an influx of population, largely foreign, which has developed the community into a city of 20,000 inhabitants. Calumet is a modern city with conveniences such as a street-car system, electric lights, waterworks, paved streets, etc. The residences of the working people are especially comfortable and commodious. The town is locally divided into two sections: (1) The section in which the executive and skilled employees of the mining company and the tradespeople live and (2) the business section around the mine. This section is called Red Jacket, and in it a large majority of the immigrants live. The estimated population of Calumet is divided according to race as follows:

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When mining operations were first started in the vicinity of Calumet about ten years ago the first race that came into the community in any noticeable numbers was the Finns. Very few of these early Finns had come direct from their native land, most of them having lived formerly in Wisconsin and southern Michigan who, when they heard of the splendid opportunities for work in the opening of the new copper country, migrated to the northern peninsula of Michigan, a great many of them settling at Calumet. The Cornishmen were the next race of immigrants to come into the community, but only a few persons of that race were employed in Calumet at the beginning. Through the letters of the first of the Cornishmen to their homes and to their countrymen in other parts of the United States a decided immigration occurred about the years 1899 and 1900. Polish immigration and that of other races from Austria-Hungary began about five years ago, or in 1904. Very few of these immigrants came to the community directly from their native land, but most of them had lived and worked elsewhere in the United States. The history of Italian immigration to the community is in no manner settled or definite. The Italians have drifted into the community gradually, and not in large numbers at any one time.

FRENCHTOWN.

Located 5 miles southwest of Calumet are two mines, around which has grown a community called Frenchtown. This locality is nothing more than a small mining camp and is located on the outskirts of Hancock. It is of about ten years' growth, the shaft at this point

having been erected during 1900. There are approximately 300 employees, and it is estimated that the total population is 1,200 persons.

The estimated present population of the community is as follows, according to races:

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When the mining shafts were opened, in 1900, the first race to be employed was the Finnish. Most of these people had lived farther south, in Wisconsin and in southern Michigan, and did not come into the copper country until the opening of this particular shaft. Few of them had previous experience at mining, but they proved adaptable and soon developed into valuable miners. The Magyars, of whom about 220 are in the community, were the next to arrive. They, like the Finns, had no training in mining, but they were found to be satisfactory workers and are now meeting with success in the lower occupations. The Cornishmen came to the community at about the same time as the Finns, but, unlike the Finns and the Magyars, they had had experience in mining and soon became foremen and bosses.

PERIOD OF RESIDENCE IN THE UNITED STATES OF FOREIGN-BORN EMPLOYEES.

The character of recent and past immigration to the mines may be seen from the following table, which shows by race the percentage of foreign-born male employees who had been in the United States each specified number of years. The period of residence in the United States and in the copper-mining district, however, are not identical. As a matter of fact, the greater number of foreign-born employees had worked elsewhere in this country before coming to the Lake Superior region.

TABLE 72.-Per cent of foreign-born male employees in the United States each specified number of years, by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. No deduction is made for time spent abroad. This table includes only races with 40 or more males reporting The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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Of the total number of male employees, 44.9 per cent have been in the United States less than five years; 20.9 per cent have been here five to nine years. The proportion of foreign-born employees who have been in this country twenty years or over is greater than the proportion who have been here ten to nineteen years. The most recent arrivals are the Lithuanians, 90 per cent of whom have been here less than five years. More than 50 per cent of the Croatians, North Italians, Magyars, and Slovenians have been here under five years. The employees of longest residence in the United States are the Germans, 85 per cent of whom have been here twenty years or over. In addition, from 58.5 per cent to 73.3 per cent of the Norwegians, Canadians other than French, and the French Canadians have been here at least twenty years.

RACIAL CLASSIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES AT THE PRESENT TIME.

The following table shows the number and percentage of male employees of each race for whom information was secured. The distribution of the races is believed to be representative of the total number of mine workers in the district:

TABLE 73.-Male employees for whom information was secured, by general nativity and

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Of the total number of male employees for whom information is presented in the above table, 80.8 per cent are foreign-born, 16.6 per cent are native-born of foreign father, and 2.6 per cent are nativeborn-of native father. Information was secured for a greater propor

tion of Finns than for any other race, the total number of that race included in the preceding table being 27.2 per cent of all. The English, with 14.8 per cent, show a proportion second to that of the Finns. These are the only two races in the entire table that show a proportion of males equal or in excess of 10 per cent of the whole. The principal other races among the foreign-born are, in the order named, the North Italian, Croatian, French Canadian, and Slovenian/ Of the persons who are native-born of foreign father, those whose fathers were born in Canada, England, Germany, and Ireland wer studied in the largest numbers.

REASONS FOR THE EMPLOYMENT OF IMMIGRANTS.

The Cornishmen were the first persons to be employed in the copper industry in northern Michigan. They were on the ground when operations began and found employment not only for themselves, but for relatives and friends who joined them within the course of a few years. This is the principal reason assigned by employers throughout the district for the employment of Cornishmen. As regards the other immigrant races that are found throughout the district, the operators state that the employment of these races is due principally to the fact that the supply of English-speaking workingmen has not equaled the demand for labor and that it has been necessary, in order to operate the mines, to have recourse to this source of labor supply.

CHAPTER III.

ECONOMIC STATUS.

Principal occupation of immigrant employees before coming to the United StatesOccupations entered by immigrants-Weekly earnings-Relation between period of residence and earning ability-Hours worked per day and per week-Employers' opinion of immigrant employees-[Text Tables 74 to 77 and General Tables 53 to 55]. PRINCIPAL OCCUPATION OF IMMIGRANT EMPLOYEES BEFORE COMING TO THE UNITED STATES.

In order to understand intelligently the economic status of the employees of foreign birth in the Michigan copper-mining regions, it is necessary to set forth in the beginning the general industrial condition and the training and experience which the immigrant employees had abroad for the industry in which they are now engaged. In this connection the following table shows, by race, the per cent of foreign-born male employees who were in each specified occupation before coming to the United States:

TABLE 74.-Per cent of foreign-born male employees in each specified occupation before coming to the United States, by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only races with 80 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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Of the 4,056 foreign-born male employees studied in the preceding table, 55.8 per cent were engaged in farming or as farm laborers; 14.6 per cent in mining (the industry in which they are now employed); 8.5 per cent in hand trades; 6.6 per cent as general laborers; 4.1 per cent in manufacturing, and less than 1 per cent in trade-the remainder, or 9.5 per cent, having been engaged in occupations other than those specified in this table-before coming to the United States. The English and Swedes, with 60.4 per cent and 17.8 per cent, respectively, are the only races showing as high as 6 per cent of their num

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