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TABLE 69.- Visits abroad made by foreign-born employees, by sex, years in the United

States, and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes

only races with 200 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

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The above table shows that the proportion of foreign-born males who have been in the United States under five years who have made visits abroad is largest for the Germans and Slovaks, in the order mentioned, and smallest for the Poles; that the proportion who have been in the United States from five to nine years who have made visits abroad is largest for the Slovaks and Irish, in the order mentioned, and smallest for the Poles; and that the proportion who have been here ten years or over, who have made visits abroad, is largest for the Irish and Slovaks, in the order mentioned, and smallest for the Poles. The percentages presented for all employees exhibit precisely the same tendencies as those presented for the males.

AGE CLASSIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES AND MEMBERS OF THEIR HOUSE

HOLDS.

The age characteristics of the employees of the oil-refining industry may be seen from the table next presented. This table shows, by sex and general nativity and race of head of household, the percentage of persons in the households studied who were within each specified age group.

Table 70.Per cent of persons within each age group, by sex and by general nativity and

race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

MALE.

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A larger proportion of the total number of persons for whom data were obtained are under 6 than in any other age group: Relatively large proportions are 20 to 29 and 30 to 44. The foreign-born show a similar age distribution. The specified races, however, exhibit a marked variation in the proportion in each age group. Of the native-born of foreign father 24.6 per cent are under 6 and 23 per cent from 6 to 13, the proportion in every other age group being considerably smaller. The largest proportion of the native-born of native father is between 30 to 44. In general, the proportions of males and females in each age group are similar, but the native-born of foreign father and the foreign-born have a greater proportion of females 6 to 13 than of males.

The following table shows, by sex and general nativity and race, the percentage of employees within each specified age group:

TABLE 71.Per cent of employees within each age group, by sex and general nativity and

race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

MALE.

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Native-born of native father, White.
Native-born of foreign father, by
country of birth of father:

Austria-Hungary..
England
Germany.

Ireland
Foreign-born, by race:

Polish.
Slovak

Grand total
Total native-born of foreign father.
Total native-born
Total foreign-born..

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Table 71.- Per cent of employees within each age group, by sex and general nativity and

race-Continued.

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Of 6,123 persons reporting, 9.7 per cent are under 20, 45.5 per cent are under 30, 83.2 per cent are under 45, and only 4.4 per cent are as much as 55 years of age. Most of the foreign-born are over 30

. years of age, but the majority of the native-born, whether of native or foreign father, are under 30; the second generation AustroHungarians report more than 90 per cent under 25 years of age. Of the foreign-born, no race except the South Italian shows as much as 10 per cent under 20 years of age. Of the employees from 20 to 24 years of age, the Croatians, with 30.3 per cent, show the highest proportion, and the Germans, with 3.5 per cent, the lowest. The majority of the Germans, English, and Irish are 35 years of age or over, while no other race has as much as 36 per cent so reported. The English and Germans each show 15.3 per cent and the Irish 9.9 per cent 55 years of age or over, but no other race reports as much as 1 per cent in that age group.

CHAPTER IX.

GENERAL PROGRESS AND ASSIMILATION.

Ownership of homes-Status of children in the households studied-School attend

ance and progress Citizenship--Ability to speak English–[Text Tables 72 to 88 and General Tables 46 to 54].

OWNERSHIP OF HOMES.

Home ownership by families, the heads of which were of foreign birth, may be considered as a strong indication of permanent settlement. The facts in this connection relative to the families, the heads of which were employed in the oil-refining industry, are set forth in the following table according to general nativity and race of head of family. TABLE 72.-Number and per cent of families owning home, by general nativity and race

of head of family.

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The above table shows that of the 535 families studied in this industry, 20.4 per cent own homes. The percentage of foreign-born families owning homes is identical with that shown in the total, while the proportion of families, the heads of which are native-born of native father owning homes, is 28.6 per cent. Among the foreignborn families studied in sufficient numbers to admit of comparison it will be seen that a very much larger proportion of Irish families than the families of any other race own homes. Following the

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