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CHAPTER VIII.

SALIENT CHARACTERISTICS.

Literacy-Conjugal condition—Visits abroad-Age classification of employees and

members of their households—Text Tables 60 to 71 and General Tables 36 to 45).

LITERACY.

The series of tables next submitted set forth not only the degree of literacy which prevails among the oil-refining employees at the present time, but also the elements of progress evidenced by the foreign-born employees after their arrival in this country. The table first presented in this connection, which follows, shows, by sex and general nativity and race, the per cent of employees who were able to read and the per cent who were able to both read and write:

TABLE 60.—Per cent of employees who read and per cent who read and write, by sex and

general nativity and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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Grand total.

6,050

40

6,090

90.2

90.1

100.0

88.0

100.0

88.1

Total native-born of foreign

father..
Total native-born.
Total foreign-born..

1, 286
1,993
4,057

25
31
9

1,311
2.024
4,066

98.8 99. 2 85.6

100.0
100.0
(a)

98.9
99. 2
85.7

98.6
98.9
82.6

100.0
100.0
(a)

98.6 99.0 82.7

a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

Of 6,050 persons reporting, 90.2 per cent are able to read and 88.1 per cent are able to read and write. Comparing the native-born of white native father, native-born of foreign father, and foreign-born, it is seen that the first two groups mentioned show very similar proportions in each branch of literacy, the proportion in each instance being considerably higher than is shown for the foreign-born. All of the females reported in this table are able to read and read and write. The English and Germans, in the order named, show the greatest proportions among the foreign races who can read and read and write, the proportion in each instance being about 98 per cent. The lowest degree of literacy is shown by the South Italians.

The following table shows, by sex and general nativity and race of individual, the percentage of persons 10 years of age or over in the households studied who read and the percentage of those who both read and write:

TABLE 61.Per cent of persons 10 years of age or over who read and per cent who read and write, by sex and general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 40 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all races)

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The above table shows that 83.1 per cent of the 1,884 individuals included could read and 80.7 per cent could both read and write, the proportions for the males being somewhat higher in each class than for females. The more notable fact brought out by this table is that of the great advance in literacy made by the second generation over the foreign-born. While the average for the latter was 74 per cent who could both read and write, and in the case of the South İtalians fell to 45.3 per cent, practically all of the second generation were literate, there being only a little over 1 per cent of the women who were native-born of foreign father who could not read and write. The highest degree of literacy among the races is shown by the Irish, and the lowest by the South Italians.

The relation between literacy and length of residence in this country is indicated by the following table, which shows, by years in

the United States and race of individual, the percentage of foreignborn persons 10 years of age or over who read, and the percentage who read and write:

TABLE 62.- Per cent of foreign-born persons 10 years of age or over who read and per cent

who read and write, by years in the United States and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes

only races with 40 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

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The greater

Of the total number of foreign-born persons 10 years of age or over the largest proportion who read is in the group who have been in the United States ten years or over; the smallest proportion who read is in the group, who have been here under five years. Similarly, an increase in the proportion who both read and write accompanies an increase in the length of residence in this country. However, among the specified races there seems to be little relation between the proportion who are literate and years in the United States. number of the races show the largest proportion who read in the group who have been here five to nine years and the smallest in the group who have been here ten years or over.

As an indication of the progress made by the younger immigrants, as compared with that made by the older immigrants, the table next presented is instructive. This table shows, according to age at time of coming to the United States and race of individual, the percentage of foreign-born persons 10 years of age or over, in the households studied, who read and who read and write: TABLE 63.- Per cent of foreign-born persons 10 years of age or over who read and per cent

who read and write, by age at time of coming to the United States and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 40 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

Per cent who read, by Per cent who read and Number

write, by age at time age at time of coming

reporting Race of individual.

to United States.

of coming to United complete

States.
data.
Under 14. 14 or over.

Under 14.

14 or over.

Irish..
Italian, South.
Lithuanian.
Polish.
Ruthenian.
Slovak..

198
265

96
346
143
219

100.0
72. 7
88.9
97.4
87.5
91.3

91.8
40. 7
83.9
85. 7
60.0
87.2

100.0
72. 7
88.9
94.9
75.0
91.3

89.1 39.8 80.5 81.8 51.9 83. 2

Total

1,384

89.4

75. 6

88.2

72. 1

Of the group of foreign-born persons 10 years of age or over and who were under 14 at the time of coming to the United States, 89.4 per cent read; of the group who were 14 or over at time of coming, 75.6 per cent read. Similarly the greater proportion who read and write is in the group who were under 14 when they came to this country. Moreover, every specified race has the greater proportion who are literate in the under 14 years of age group.

CONJUGAL CONDITION.

The table next presented shows, by sex and general nativity and race, the percentage of employees 20 years of age or over who were in each conjugal condition:

Table 64.—Per cent of employees 20 years of age or over in each conjugal condition, by

sex and general nativity and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

MALE.

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a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

TABLE 64.-Per cent of employees 20 years of age or over in each conjugal condition, by

sex and general nativity and race-Continued.

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Of 5,509 persons, 29.3 per cent are single, 67.6 per cent are married, and 3 per cent are widowed. The foreign-born show a greater proportion married than do either of the native-born groups. Of the foreign-born races, the Germans and Slovaks report the greatest proportion over 80 per cent of each race married-while the Lithuanians, with 51 per cent in that condition, show the smallest proportion. Of the English, 9.5 per cent are widowed. No Russians in that conjugal condition.

The table following divides the totals of the one preceding, and shows the percentage of employees in each conjugal condition, by age groups, sex, and general nativity and race.

48296°

-VOL 16-11-53

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