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THE NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY

ASTOR, LENOX AND
TILDEN FOUNDAT

T II-COPPER MINING AND SMELTING IN MICHIGAN.

CHAPTER I.

INTRODUCTION.

the region-History of the Michigan copper country-Employees for information was secured-[Text Table 71 and General Table 51].

LOCATION OF THE REGION.

ire mineral district of northern Michigan is divided by the into four distinct ranges: First, the copper-bearing range, along the western shore of Lake Superior; second, the ange, extending along the northwestern borders of Wisird, the Menominee iron range, extending along the northorders of Wisconsin; and fourth, the Marquette range, on Keweenaw and Huron bays. For the purposes of this e copper-bearing country on the northern peninsula of north of Portage Lake to Mohawk, is taken as the terrinvestigation. The location and extent of this region may om the accompanying map.

HISTORY OF THE MICHIGAN COPPER COUNTRY.

pper region of northern Michigan, otherwise known as the perior field, was the first important American copper field erated, and at the present time it is one of the principal roducing districts of the world, being third in size of output. survey of the upper peninsula of Michigan was made by glas Houghton, who came to Lake Superior in 1830. The ers were two men of unknown nationality who came to the 1843. For one year after their arrival they endured many

In the following year they were joined by a number of en, who came from Cornwall, England, where they had been in the coal mines. For many years the Cornishmen were cipal employees. In later years, when the supply of labor insufficient to meet the demands of the operators, it was to secure other immigrants.

EMPLOYEES FOR WHOM INFORMATION WAS SECURED.

dition to historical and descriptive data and a detailed study holds, information was received for 5,632 employees of the nd smelters. The data secured from the households investipear in Part I, the general survey of the industry. The

information received from the employees on the Michigan copper range is used as the statistical basis of the tabulation of this part of the report. The following table shows the male employees of each race for whom information was secured:

TABLE 71.-Male employees for whom information was secured, by general nativity and

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CHAPTER II.

RACIAL DISPLACEMENTS.

History of immigration-Period of residence in the United States of foreign-born employees-Racial classification of employees at the present time-Reasons for the employment of immigrants-[Text Tables 72 and 73 and General Table 52].

HISTORY OF IMMIGRATION.

Immigration to the Michigan copper range started in 1844 with the arrival of the Cornishmen, who preceded other foreign races in the successful operations of Lake Superior copper mines. The Cornishmen, having been miners before their immigration, carried on their work successfully and in many cases made large fortunes. Their descendants are now living in the region and are as thoroughly Americanized as the native American. The Cornishmen were followed by the Finns, who also have made great progress in the district. They for the most part occupy laboring positions, however, and have not been so successful as were the early Cornishmen. The other races, the Magyars, Scandinavians, North Italians, and Poles, which have been in the community only a few years, are working merely as laboring men and are making little progress beyond that position in life. The racial movements to the copper region as well as the present racial composition of the population may be best seen from the history of immigration to the principal localities. For this reason the racial movements to a number of representative communities are submitted below.

MOHAWK.

Mohawk, as can be seen from the map," is located in Keweenaw County, about 20 miles north of Houghton on the northern peninsula of Michigan. It is connected with Houghton and the other towns of the peninsula by an electric railway, and also by the Copper Range and Keweenaw steam roads. Ten years ago the shaft now operated by the local mining company was opened and, proving successful, led to the building up of the present community. Before that time the site now occupied by the town was nothing but a wilderness, as is now a large part of the country north of it. With the successful opening of the copper vein at this point there was an influx of employees, consisting principally of Finns, English (Cornish), North Italians, and representatives of different Austrian races. These people secured employment at the shaft, and by making their homes near the plant they have built up a town. At the present time the population is about 3,000. One mining company conducts all the operations in this community, and is the only industry offering general employment. As a result the entire community and its activities center around the copper-mining industry.

a See Chapter I.

The population of Mohawk by races at the present time is estimated to be as follows:

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At the time the shaft was opened at Mohawk the earliest laborers to come in were, as elsewhere throughout the region, Cornishmen and Finns. Some of the Cornishmen had drifted into the lumber business in southern Michigan, and at the time of the opening of the mining shafts on the northern peninsula they went there in search of work. The Cornishmen were experienced miners and they were gladly received by the mining company. About 1901 the North Italians began coming to the town in small numbers and they continued until about three years ago. The so-called "Austrians" were the next to arrive; they commenced coming in 1902 or 1903, and were mostly of the Slovak and Polish races. All of these peoples were employed in the mining industry. They rented houses from the company and have become residents of the community. There being no other industries, the immigrants have been employed in the mining industry exclusively.

WOLVERINE.

Wolverine is located in Houghton County on the northern peninsula of Michigan, and is 2 miles northeast of Calumet on the electric line and also on the Copper Range steam road. Mining is the only industry in the community and furnishes employment for 450 men. The shaft of the mining company was developed eight years ago and before that time this community was nothing more than a wilderness. With the opening of the Wolverine shaft there was an influx of population, which has steadily increased until, at the present time, the estimated population of the locality is placed at 1,500 people, apportioned by races as follows:

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The first immigrants to come to the village were the Cornishmen. At the beginning of mining operations in 1901 they came in large numbers from other mines in the region where the wages were not as high as those offered in the new community. In 1902 or 1903 about 200 Finns sought work in the mines, and since that time about 200 more have arrived. The Finns who came to the community at that time had mostly lived in the copper country south of Houghton, and were attracted to this community by high wages. In 1905 the first Italians arrived and since that time they have steadily drifted in, until they number about 150 at the present time. The Magyars, of whom about 100 are in the community at present, have come the past two years.

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