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connection. The first table presented, which follows, shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the number and per cent of households keeping boarders or lodgers.

TABLE 51.-Number and per cent of households keeping boarders or lodgers, by general

nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (Information relating to boarders and lodgers covers only immediate time of taking schedule and not the

entire year. Boarders are persons who receive both board and lodging.)

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From the above table it will be noted that of the 525 households studied, 32.8 per cent keep boarders or lodgers, the proportion of foreign-born slightly exceeding the proportion shown by the total, while less than 10 per cent of households the heads of which are total native-born keep boarders or lodgers, and even a smaller proportion, or 4.8 per cent, of those households the heads of which are nativeborn of white native father. Among the foreign-born the Lithuanian households, with 51.6 per cent, show a slightly larger proportion than do the South Italians, Poles, or Ruthenians, and a much larger proportion than do the Slovaks or Irish keeping boarders or lodgers, the last named reporting only 16.7 per cent.

The table following shows the average number of boarders or lodgers per household by general nativity and race of head of household. The averages are based (1) on the total number of households and (2) on the number of households having boarders or lodgers.

TABLE 52.-Average number of boarders or lodgers per household, by general nativity

and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (Information relating to boarders and lodgers covers only immediate time of taking schedule and not the

entire year. Boarders are persons who receive both board and lodging.)

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From the above table it will be noted that the average number of boarders or lodgers per household, based on the total number of households, is 0.70, while the average number, based on the number of households keeping boarders or lodgers, is 2.15, the average number of foreign-born in each instance being slightly in excess of that shown in the total. Compared with the average number of boarders or lodgers per household among the foreign-born (as based on the total number of households) the average number per household among those native-born of foreign father and native whites born of native father is low. Among the foreign-born the average number of boarders or lodgers in Croatian households, based on the total number of households, is considerably higher than the average number in South Italian or Lithuanian households, the last named reporting an average of one boarder or lodger per household. The Germans, on the other hand, show by far the lowest average, or 0.13. Following the average shown by the Lithuanians, the Magyars and Poles each show an average in excess of that shown by the total foreign-born. Based on the total number of households keeping boarders or lodgers, the South Italians, with 3.07 boarders or lodgers per household, show a considerably higher average than do the Poles, Lithuanians, Slovaks, Irish, or Ruthenians, in the order named, the Ruthenians reporting an average of 1.50.

SIZE OF APARTMENTS OCCUPIED.

The range in the size of apartments occupied by the households is set forth in the following table, which shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the per cent of households occupying apartments of each specified number of rooms: TABLE 53.--Per cent of households occupying apartments of each specified number of rooms,

by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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From a study of 525 households the preceding table shows that 33.9 per cent occupy apartments of 4 rooms, 24 per cent occupy apartments of 3 rooms, 15.6 per cent occupy apartments of 5 rooms, and 12.4 per cent occupy apartments of 2 rooms, 14.1 percent occupying apartments of 6 rooms or more. None of the households the heads of which are native-born of native father, as compared with 13.2 per cent of the households the heads of which are foreignborn, occupy apartments of 2 rooms. A larger proportion of the households the heads of which are foreign-born than of the households the heads of which are native-born of native father occupy apartments of 3 or 4 rooms, the reverse being true as regards the proportion occupying apartments of 5, 6, or 7 or more rooms. Considering the households whose heads are of each specified race it is seen that 19.8 per cent of those the heads of which are Irish occupy apartments of 6 rooms and 14.6 per cent occupy apartments of 7 or more rooms, as compared with less than 5 per cent of the households the heads of which are of each other given race. The households the heads of which are Ruthenians show the largest and the households the heads of which are Irish show the smallest proportion occupying apartments of 3 rooms, while the households the heads of which are Lithuanians show the largest and the households the heads of which are Ruthenians show the smallest proportion occupying apartments of 5 rooms, none of the households the heads of which are Ruthenians occupying apartments of more than 5 rooms.

SIZE OF HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

The following table exhibits the range in the size of households studied by showing according to general nativity and race of head of household the percentage of the households of each specified number of persons: TABLE 54.- Per cent of households of each specified number of persons, by general nativity

and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) ['This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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The above table shows that the average family in this locality has from three to six members; the average for foreign-born correspond different, the predominant numbers here being in the households having three and four members. Among the six races of the foreign-born enumerated the South Italians and the Irish have notably large percentages of families with 9, 10, or more members.

CONGESTION.

The extent to which crowding prevails in the households of employees of the oil-refining industry has been set forth in preceding tables. The degree of congestion and its effect upon living arrangements is more directly indicated in the following series of tabulations. The first table presented shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the average number of persons in apartments of each specified number of rooms.

TABLE 55.— Average number of persons in apartments of each specified number of rooms,

by general nativity and race of head of household.

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The preceding table shows an average of 4.23 persons in apartments of 2 rooms, 5 persons in apartments of 3 rooms, 5.49 persons in apartments of 4 rooms, 5.93 persons in apartments of 5 rooms, 6.42 persons in apartments of 6 rooms, 7.23 persons in apartments of 7 rooms or more, and an average of 5.46 persons in apartments irrespective of number of rooms. The households the heads of which are nativeborn of foreign father show 6.10 persons per apartment as contrasted with 5.49 persons in apartments occupied by households the heads of which are foreign-born, and 4.52 persons in apartments occupied by households the heads of which are native-born whites of native father. The households the heads of which are Ruthenians show the highest average number of persons in apartments of 2 rooms, the households the heads of which are Slovaks the highest average number of persons in apartments of 3 rooms, and households the heads of which are Magyars the highest average, which is 6.90 persons, in apartments with 4 rooms. The households the heads of which are Lithuanians show the highest average, which is 5.91 persons, in apartments with 5 rooms, while the households the heads of which are Irish show 6.63 persons in apartments of 6 rooms and 7.86 persons in apartments of 7 or more rooms.

The households the heads of which are Magyars show an average of 7.18 persons per apartment, followed by the households the heads of which are Germans and Croatians with an average of over 6 persons per apartment, while the households the heads of which are of all other specified races, except the Lithuanian, show an average of over 5 persons per apartment. The households the heads of which are Lithuanians show an average of 4.81 persons per apartment.

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