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The first table presented, which follows, shows, by race and length of residence in the United States, the comparative earnings each week of foreign-born male employees who were 18 years of age or over.

TABLE 33.-Comparative earnings per week of foreign-born male employees 18 years of age or over, by race and length of residence in the United States.*

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes only races with 200 or more males reporting.]

IN UNITED STATES LESS THAN 5 YEARS.

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*This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

From the data presented in the above table it appears that of the employees who have been in the United States less than five years, the Irish have a considerably larger proportion of individuals in each of the higher wage groups than have the Poles. The percentages for employees in the United States from five to nine years show, however, a decided gain made by the Poles as compared with the Irish and the percentages for employees in the United States ten years or over show that the proportion of individuals earning under $15 weekly is quite as large for the Poles as for the Irish.

ANNUAL EARNINGS OF MALE HEADS OF FAMILIES STUDIED.

The first table presented shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the number and percentage of husbands at work, together with their average annual earnings.

TABLE 34.-Husbands at work, by general nativity and race of individual.

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Of the 495 husbands for whom information was obtained 99.6 per cent are at work with average earnings of $662. The proportion of foreign-born husbands at work is only slightly in excess of that shown by the total, and the average earnings of these foreign-born husbands amount to $644, as compared with $797 for the husbands nativeborn of foreign father, and $1,085 for the husbands native-born of native father. Of all races reporting in sufficient numbers to admit of comparison the South Italians alone show a small per cent of husbands not at work. Among the foreign-born, the Irish report the highest average earnings, or $861. These earnings, it will be seen, are slightly in excess of those shown by the Germans or Lithuanians, and largely in excess of those shown by the Magyars, Poles, Slovaks, Croatians, South Italians, or Ruthenians, in the order named the last named reporting average earnings of $467.

The range in annual earnings of male heads of families is set forth in the table following, according to general nativity and race of individual.

TABLE 35.-Earnings per year of male heads of families, by general nativity and race of

individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only male heads of selected families. For selection of families, see p. 859.]

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The greater proportion of the total number of male heads earn under $800 per year. The foreign-born, however, in the greater proportion of cases earn under $600. The Lithuanians and Irish in the greater number of instances earn under $1,000. The remaining races for which percentages are computed most commonly earn under $600. The Ruthenians show the largest percentage earning under each specified amount; consequently the smallest average earnings per year. Relatively high earnings per year are most general among the Irish and Lithuanians, those races having the smallest proportions earning less than each specified amount.

ANNUAL EARNINGS OF MALES 18 YEARS OF AGE OR OVER IN THE HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

In the table next submitted the average and range of annual earnings of all males in the households studied, who were 18 years of age or over, are shown by general nativity and race of individual.

TABLE 36.- Yearly earnings (approximate) of males 18 years of age or over, by general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

General nativity and race of individual.

Number

working

for wages Average

porting amount.

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and re- earnings. Under Under Under Under Under Under Under Under $200. $400. $600. $1,000. $200. $400. $600. $1,000.

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The above table shows that of 849 males 18 years of age or over who are working for wages and who reported the amount earned, 2.9 per cent earn under $200, 23.7 per cent earn under $400, 60.4 per cent earn under $600, and 94.2 per cent earn under $1,000 per year. The average approximate yearly earnings are $591. The native whites born of native father show average yearly earnings of $941, as contrasted with the average yearly earnings of the nativeborn of foreign father, which is $605 and the average yearly earnings of the foreign-born, which is $579. The native-born of foreign father show 6.6 per cent earning under $200 per year, followed by the native-born whites of native father and the foreignborn with smaller proportions. The foreign-born show 24.3 per cent earning under $400, followed by the native-born of foreign father with a somewhat smaller percentage, while the native-born whites of native father show only 8.3 per cent earning under the above-mentioned amount. The foreign-born show over 60 per cent, the nativeborn of foreign father over 50 per cent, and the native-born whites of native father 16.7 per cent earning under $600. The foreign-born exhibit over 95 per cent, the native-born of foreign father over 90 per cent, and the native-born whites of native father 70.8 per cent earning under $1,000. Of the native-born of foreign father, males of Irish parentage show average yearly earnings of $632, as contrasted with average yearly earnings of males of German parentage

of $574. Of the foreign-born males, the Germans and the Irish show average yearly earnings of over $800, the English and Lithuanians over $700, the Magyars, the Poles, the Croatians, and the Slovaks over $500, and the South Italians and the Ruthenians average yearly earnings of less than $450. The Slovaks, Ruthenians, Croatians, and Poles show between 3.1 and 5.8 per cent earning under $200 per year, none of the males of other specified races showing over 1 per cent earning under this amount. The Ruthenians and South Italians show over 40 per cent and the Slovaks over 30 per cent earning under $400, the other races showing comparatively small proportions earning under this amount. The South Italians and the Ruthenians show over 85 per cent earning under $600 and the Ruthenians, Poles, South Italians, and Croatians 100 per cent earning under $1,000. The Irish show the smallest percentage earning under each of the above-mentioned amounts per year.

ANNUAL EARNINGS OF FEMALES 18 YEARS OF AGE OR OVER IN THE HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

The following table shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the yearly earnings of all females in the households studied who were 18 years of age or over and who were working for wages: TABLE 37.- Yearly earnings (approximate) of females 18 years of age or over, by general nativity and race of individual.

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a Not computed, owing to small number involved. Percentages not computed, owing to small numbers involved.

From the preceding table it appears that the earnings of the females 18 years of age or over, for whom information was secured, average $315 per year. The average yearly earnings of the nativeborn of foreign father are very much larger than the average yearly earnings of the foreign-born. The average yearly earnings of the

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