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CHAPTER III.

ECONOMIC STATUS.

Industrial condition abroad of members of immigrant households studied-Principal occupation of immigrant employees before coming to the United States-General occupation of males at the present time in the households studied-General occupation of women at the present time in the households studied-Occupations entered in the industry-Occupations of the first and second generations compared-Daily earnings Weekly earnings-Relation between period of residence and earning ability-Annual earnings of male heads of families studied—Annual earnings of males 18 years of age or over in the households studied-Annual earnings of females 18 years of age or over in the households studied-Annual family income-Wives at work-Relation between the earnings of husbands and the practice of wives in keeping boarders or lodgers-Sources of family income-Relative importance of the different sources of family income-[Text Tables 22 to 44 and General Tables 6 to 18.]

INDUSTRIAL CONDITION ABROAD OF MEMBERS OF IMMIGRANT HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

In order that a comparison may be made of the condition of the immigrant employees in the oil-refining industry in this country with that while abroad, it is necessary to point out their general industrial status and the principal occupations followed by them before emigrating from their native countries. This is done in the following series of tables, the first of which shows, by race of individual, the industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreignborn males in the households studied who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming to this country.

TABLE 22.—Industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born males who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

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Of 714 males reporting, 1.7 per cent were without occupation before coming to the United States, 49.9 per cent worked for wages, 34.5 per cent worked without wages, and 14 per cent worked for profit before coming to this country. South Italians show the highest percentage and Croatians the lowest percentage working for wages and Ruthenians the highest percentage and South Italians the lowest percentage working without wages before coming to the United States. Croatians show a large proportion working for profit when contrasted with the other races, while Ruthenians show a comparatively small percentage working for profit before coming to this country.

The occupations before coming to the United States of foreign-born males in the households studied, who were 16 years of age or over at time of arrival, is shown in the following table according to race of individual.

TABLE 23.-Occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born males who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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The above table shows that of the males working for wages the greatest proportion were farm laborers before coming to the United States, the next highest per cent were in other occupations, while the per cent who were engaged in oil refining before coming to this country was extremely low. The greatest proportion who were working without wages were farm laborers and the highest per cent who were working for profit were farmers. Only one race, the Polish, shows any males who have had previous experience in the oil-refining industry, the greatest proportion of all races having been farm laborers.

The table next presented shows, by race of individual, the industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born females in the households studied who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming to this country.

TABLE 24.-Industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born females who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more females reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign

born.]

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Of the foreign-born females for whom information was obtained, 46.4 per cent were without occupation abroad, 20.5 per cent worked for wages, 32.1 per cent without wages, and 1 per cent for profit. None of the Irish, Lithuanians, or Slovaks, and only a very small proportion of the females of the other races, worked for profit, and no South Italians worked without wages before coming to the United States. While the Ruthenians, with 8.5 per cent, show by far the smallest proportion without occupation, they report a considerably larger proportion than any other race, working without wages. On the other hand, the South Italians, none of whom worked without wages, show a considerably larger proportion without occupation than do the Irish or Poles, and a much larger proportion than do the Lithuanians or Slovaks-the last named reporting 21.1 per cent without occupation abroad. Of those working for wages, the Lithuanians show the largest proportion, or 34.6 per cent. Following the Lithuanians are the Slovaks, who show a slightly larger proportion than do the Ruthenians, Irish, or Poles, and a considerably larger proportion than do the South Italians. The proportion of Slovaks working without wages, it will be noted, while only slightly below that of the Ruthenians, is considerably in excess of the proportion shown by any other race-the Irish reporting the smallest proportion, or 11.1 per cent.

The table following analyzes the preceding table into the principal occupations followed by foreign-born females, in the households studied, before coming to the United States, who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming to this country. The presentation is by race of individual.

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TABLE 25.-Occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born females who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more females reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign

born.]

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The above table shows that 46.4 per cent of the total females reporting were without occupation before coming to the United States; of those who were working for wages 7.9 per cent were farm laborers, 10.4 per cent were in domestic service, and 2.2 per cent were in other occupations. Those working without wages, 32.1 per cent, were farm laborers, while the proportion working for profit was very small. South Italians show a very high percentage of females who were without occupation before coming to the United States, 83.9, Lithuanians and Ruthenians show a considerably large proportion who were working for wages as farm laborers, Irish show the highest per cent who were in domestic service before coming to this country, and South Italians no females who were formerly in the domestic service.

PRINCIPAL OCCUPATION OF IMMIGRANT EMPLOYEES BEFORE COMING TO THE UNITED STATES.

The table next presented shows by race the percentage of foreignborn male employees who were in each specified occupation before coming to the United States.

TABLE 26.-Per cent of foreign-born male employees in each specified occupation before coming to the United States, by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only races with 80 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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The preceding table shows that of the foreign-born male employees for whom information was secured, 60.8 per cent were employed before coming to the United States in farming or as farm laborers, 12.7 per cent in general labor, 10.2 per cent in hand trades, 5.9 per cent in manufacturing, 1.9 per cent in trade, and 8.5 per cent in occupations not specified. The proportion of individuals who were employed in farming or as farm laborers is largest for the Croatians and Slovaks and smallest for the Germans and South Italians; the proportion employed in general labor is much larger for the South Italians than for the individuals of any other race and is smallest for the Magyars, Croatians, and Slovaks; and the proportion employed in hand trades is much larger for the Germans than for the individuals of any other race and is smallest for the Croatians and Irish.

GENERAL OCCUPATION OF MALES AT THE PRESENT TIME IN THE

HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

In contrast with the preceding tabulation, the series of tables next presented exhibit the industrial condition of immigrant employees and members of their households in this country. The first table submitted shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the general occupation of males, in the households studied, who were 16 years of age or over.

TABLE 27.-General occupation of males 16 years of age or over, by general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Of the total number of males 16 years of age or over 84.1 per cent are in oil refining and 12.2 per cent otherwise employed. Oil refining is the occupation most common to every class of males. However, the proportion of native-born of foreign father who are in that industry, 60.4 per cent, is considerably smaller than the proportions of native whites of native father and foreign-born, both of whom show 86.7 per cent. Moreover, of the specified races of foreign birth, the smallest proportion in oil refining is 76.8 per cent of the South Italians. The Croatians show the maximum proportion in that industry, 100

per cent.

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