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are employed as brick masons, painters, and paper hangers. They are also extensively engaged in small business enterprises. The Russian Polish Hebrew forms 75 per cent of the total Hebrew population. Next in order of numbers are the Hungarian, Galician, and Roumanian Hebrews, with a few from Germany and Lithuania.

In conclusion, it appears that most of the Irish, the first to come, have been in Bayonne twenty-five or thirty years or longer. The German immigration has been fairly well distributed through the past thirty years, while fully 75 per cent of the Swedes have been in the city twenty-five years. None of these races are now coming to a great extent. The Slovaks and Ruthenians, for the most part, have arrived during the past twenty years, although not many have come in the last ten years. The Lithuanians have all come in the last sixteen years, while the greater percentage of the Poles have arrived during the past ten years. Over one-half the Italians and Hebrews have been in the city under six years. Decidedly the most active immigration at present is among the Italians and Hebrews. The Irish, Swedes, and Germans, having been gradually eliminated from the ranks of common labor, are largely engaged in the more skilled occupations, such as still men, foremen, and mechanics in the oil plants, and as machinists, carpenters, masons, and painters in the other industries or independently, and in business as saloon keepers, tailors, or butchers. The Slovaks, Ruthenians, Poles, and Lithuanians have gained a foothold in the semiskilled occupations, such as helpers and machine operators. Some of them have become testers, coopers, headers, and even foremen, but they are for the most part employed as unskilled laborers. The Italians are either doing street work, such as ditching, or are engaged in the roughest unskilled yard work around the plants. The Hebrews are tradesmen or independent mechanics.

PERIOD OF RESIDENCE IN THE UNITED STATES OF FOREIGN-BORN EMPLOYEES AND MEMBERS OF THEIR HOUSEHOLDS.

The character of recent and past immigration to the industry may be clearly seen from the following series of tables, which show the period of residence in this country of employees and members of their households. Length of residence in the United States and period of employment in the refineries are not necessarily identical, but they closely approximate each other. The first set of tables submitted show, by sex and race, the number and per cent of foreign-born employees in Whiting, Ind., who had been in the United States each specified number of years.

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TABLE 12.-Number of foreign-born employees in the United States each specified num· ber of years, by sex and race, Whiting, Ind.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. No deduction is made for time spent abroad.]

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TABLE 13.-Per cent of foreign-born employees in the United States each specified number of years, by sex and race, Whiting, Ind.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. No deduction is made for time spent abroad. This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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Of 903 persons, 894 were males and 9 females. Of the total number, 19.3 per cent are reported as having been in the United States under five years; 27.7 per cent have been here from five to nine years; 11.5 per cent from ten to fourteen years; 14.8 per cent from fifteen to nineteen years, and 26.7 per cent twenty years or over. The Poles, Slovaks, and Croatians are the more recent immigrants, the larger proportion of whom have been here under ten years, while on the other hand, by far the greater proportion of the Germans have resided in the country over ten years, and 78.4 per cent of them have been here twenty years or over.

The tables following show, by race, the number and percentage of foreign-born male employees of the Bayonne, N. J., refineries who had been in the United States each specified number of years.

Table 14.-Number of foreign-born male employees in the United States each specified number of years, by race, Bayonne, N. J.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. No deduction is made for time spent abroad.]

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TABLE 15.-Per cent of foreign-born male employees in the United States each specified number of years, by race, Bayonne, N. J.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. No deduction is made for time spent abroad. This table includes only races with 40 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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Of 2,600 persons, 31.3 per cent have been in the United States under five years; 24.7 per cent have been here from five to nine years; 11.5 per cent from ten to fourteen years; 8.9 per cent from fifteen to nineteen years, and 23.5 per cent have been here twenty years or over. The greatest proportion of Russians and South Italians have been in the United States under five years and the greater proportion of Lithuanians, Magyars, Poles, and Ruthenians have been here under ten years, while the greater proportion of Slovaks have been here under fifteen years; by contrast, by far the largest proportion of Germans and English have been here twenty years or over and the greater proportion of the Irish report a residence in this country of over fifteen years.

The table and accompanying chart next presented set forth the same data as the one which follows it, but in a more summary form, the proportions in the different residence groups up to five years being brought together in one group.

TABLE 16.-Per cent of foreign-born employees in the United States each specified number of years, by sex and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. No deduction is made for time spent abroad. This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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