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The preceding table shows that of 3,607 male employees in the copper-mining industry, 97.5 per cent of those who were under 14 years of age and 49.1 per cent of those who were 14 years of age or over before coming to the United States, speak English. Each race shows a larger proportion of those who were under 14 than of those who were 14 years of age or over at time of coming to the United States who speak English—the proportion who were 14 or over ranging from 95.3 per cent, as shown by the Germans, to 16.7 per cent, as shown by the Magyars, as compared with 100 per cent as shown by the French Canadians, Germans, North Italians, and Slovenians, and 93.8 per cent and 80 per cent as shown by the Finns and Croatians, respectively, of those who were under 14 years of age.

The table next submitted shows, by years in the United States and race, the per centage of foreign-born male employees who speak English.

TABLE 70.Per cent of foreign-born male employees who speak English, by years in the

United States and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes

only non-English-speaking races with 100 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all nonEnglish-speaking races.)

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Of the 3,607 male employees included in the preceding table, 52.3 per cent speak English. That length of residence in the United States affects the ability to speak English is evidenced by the fact that while 25.8 per cent of those who have been in the United States under five years have this ability, the percentage increases to 60.8 per cent of those with a period of residence from five to nine years, and 87.1 per cent of those with a residence of ten years or over. With the exception of the Germans who show 100 per cent who speak English in both of the longer residence periods, each race shows that the proportion who speak English increases with the period of residence in the United States.

PART II.-COPPER MINING AND SMELTING IN MICHIGAN.

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