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Number of employees of each general nativity for whom detailed information was secured.

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THE PREPARATION OF THE REPORT.

In preparing the data for publication, the tabulations both for employees and households, with some exceptions, have been made on the basis of the industry as a whole. The exceptions to this general rule of procedure are to be found in cases where tabulations, together with descriptive and historical matter, restricted in their application to the refining centers in the East and West, are introduced for comparative purposes.

CHAPTER II.

RACIAL DISPLACEMENTS.

History of immigration-Period of residence in the United States of foreign-born

employees and members of their households—Racial classification of employees at the present time—[Text Tables 12 to 21 and General Tables 4 and 5].

HISTORY OF IMMIGRATION.

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No statistics are available as to the racial movements within recent years to the oil-refining industry of the country as a whole. A conception of the part which members of races of recent and past immigration have had in the development of the industry and the extent to which they are employed at the resent time, may be obtained, however, from a study of the racial movements to and racial composition of communities which have had their establishment and growth in connection with oil refining. For this reason the history of immigration to two representative oil-refining communities is set forth below: (1) to Whiting, Ind., which is a city of the Middle West, the labor and capital of which is almost exclusively engaged in oil refining, and (2) to Bayonne, N. J., which is a city of the same description in the East, the industries of which, however, are somewhat more diversified than those of Whiting.

The city of Whiting is located on the shores of Lake Michigan, in the extreme northwestern corner of the State of Indiana, about 17 miles southeast of the city of Chicago, Ill. It was first settled about the year 1850 by a few native American and German families, who formed a small village. These early settlers lived on the produce of the sandy ranges of the district and by fishing and hunting. From year to year the population of this settlement was increased by German immigrants seeking homes, until in 1890 the number of persons in the village was about 200.

During the later part of the year 1889 a petroleum-refining company entered the community and began the erection of an extensive refinery. In order to build the plant it was found necessary to import large numbers of workmen from other parts of the United States, the majority of whom were native Americans and Irish transferred from other establishments of the company, chiefly from a refinery in Cleveland, Ohio. When the plant was opened in 1890 practically the same laborers who had been employed to erect it were placed in the several departments to carry on the operations. Following closely upon this event a general immigration to the community began, composed chiefly of Poles, Slovaks, Croatians, and Magyars, who came seeking employment. From year to year after this period the community increased in population until the year 1900, when the census of the United States placed the population at 3,983. In 1895 the community was incorporated under a town charter, and on May 4, 1903, was granted a city charter. The estimated population in 1909 was 7,000 individuals; 65 per cent, or 4,550, being composed of immigrant aliens, and 35 per cent made up of native Americans. The following statement shows the estimated population of Whiting in 1909, by race, number of families, and number of individuals:

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Since the entrance of the first Austro-Hungarian races in about 1890, there has been an annual immigration, not alone of the Poles, Slovaks, Croatians, and Magyars, but of other races including Swedes, English, Welsh, North Italians, Bohemians, Lithuanians, Ruthenians, and Hebrews. The Slovak immigration during this period has been the heaviest, and at present the numbers of Slovaks in Whiting, next to the Americans, is greater than that of any other one race. is stated by old residents of the city that many of the immigrants who entered the community shortly after the opening of the refinery are still living in the locality. Industrially, Whiting is at the present time essentially an oil refining community. The petroleum refinery is the only industrial establishment located in the city, and among the employees will be found represented nearly all races living in the community.

The city of Bayonne, N. J., occupies the southern end of a peninsula extending south from below Jersey City to a narrow strait called the Kill van Kull

, separating it from Staten Island, and is bounded on the east and west by the New York and Newark bays, respectively. From a population of 32,722 in 1900, the city has grown to an estimated population of 50,000 in 1909. The rapid increase in population is due in a large measure to the growth of the manufacturing interests which have created a great demand for labor.

The city has approximately 250 manufacturing, establishments. Several are enterprises of great magnitude, employing in excess of 1,000 men and engaging both in interstate and foreign commerce. Oil-refining is the industry of greatest importance. The city has several different establishments engaged in this industry, one plant

having approximately 5,000 employees. Because of the predominating influence of the oil-refining interests on the industrial development of the city the community has been studied principally in its relation to this industry, but other industrial establishments have had their effect on the situation and are also given consideration.

The development of the city as a suburban residence region has been retarded in proportion to its growth as an industrial center. The working people now form by far the largest part of the population. In 1900 only 26.6 per cent of the private families owned their own homes. The other 73.4 per cent lived in rented dwellings or apartments. The population of the city is very cosmopolitan. In what are known as Centerville and Constable Hook it is estimated that 85 per cent of the inhabitants are of foreign birth. Poles, Slovaks, Ruthenians, Italians, Jews, and Irish predominate, with a considerable element of Germans, Scandinavians, English, and Lithuanians. Many of the more skilled and higher paid workmen live in Newark, Elizabethport, Jersey City, and other surrounding cities. In 1906 those of foreign parentage constituted 74.8 per cent of the total population. The following statement will give some idea of the numerical growth and racial composition of the city's population. A significant feature of this statement is the large increase in the number of immigrants of Austria-Hungarian, Russian, and Italian descent, indicated by a comparison of the census of 1900 with the estimated population of 1909. * The census of 1900, including only foreign-born, shows 1,350 immigrants from Austria-Hungary, 2,358 from Russia, including Poland, and 240 from Italy. The estimates for 1900, including all members of families where the head was of foreign birth, show 5,210 from Austria-Hungary, 11,850 from Russia, including Poland, and 3,500 from Italy. The number of foreign-born Germans, and English, Scotch, and Welsh, in 1900 differs little from the number of immigrants from these countries in 1909 when the second generation is included in the estimates.

Composition of the population of Bayonne, N. J., 1900, 1905, and 1909, by country

of birth

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C 60 c 150 € 2.000

C 800

500

10 25 300 175

500

10 25 500 180

Slovak

809 Austria and Hungary.

Croatian. 541

Magyar.

(Ruthenian.. Russia...

1.868 | Lithuanian. This includes only families where the head is a native-born American and does not include American born of foreign parentage. o Included in estimates of population by races below.

Includes all members of families where head is of foreign birth, irrespective of birthplace of wives and children. Includes also all foreign-born boarders, etc. Hence in this are included many American-born children.

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