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OIL REFINING.

CONTENTS.

Page. 745 745 746 746 747 748 754

755

762 770

777

CHAPTER I.-Introduction:

The growth of the industry.
The increase in the number of employees.
Localities studied..
Households studied.
Members of households for whom detailed information was secured.
Employees for whom information was secured..

The preparation of the report.
CHAPTER 11.-Racial displacements:

History of immigration....
Period of residence in the United States of foreign-born employees and

members of their households...

Racial classification of employees at the present time...
CHAPTER III.- Economic status:

Industrial condition abroad of members of immigrant households studied.
Principal occupation of immigrant employees before coming to the United

States...
General occupation of males at the present time in the households studied..
General occupation of women at the present time in the households studied.
Occupations entered in the industry.
Occupations of the first and second generations compared.
Daily earnings....
Weekly earnings
Relation between period of residence and earning ability.
Annual earnings of male heads of families studied..
Annual earnings of males 18 years of age or over in the households studied.
Annual earnings of females 18 years of age or over in the households studied.
Annual family income...
Wives at work...
Relation between the earnings of husbands and the practice of wives of

keeping boarders or lodgers. Sources of family income..

Relative importance of the different sources of family income.
CHAPTER IV.-Working conditions:

Reasons for employing immigrants....
General conditions of employment at Whiting.
Hours of employment.
Regularity of employment.

The immigrant and organized labor.
Chapter V.- Relative progress and efficiency:

Opinions of employers as to the efficiency of immigrant employees...

Progress of immigrants.
CHAPTER VI.--Industrial effects of immigration:

Effect of the employment of immigrants upon former employees..
Effect of the employment of immigrants upon the establishment of new

industries....
CHAPTER VII.-Housing and living conditions:

Rent in its relation to standard of living.
Boarders and lodgers...
Size of apartments occupied.
Size of households studied.
Congestion.....

780 781 782 782 783 784 784 785 787 789 791 792 792

793 795 797

799 800 802 802 803

805 806

807

808 Page. 823 826 832 833

809 812 815 816 816

CHAPTER VIII.-Salient characteristics:

Literacy...
Conjugal condition.
Visits abroad..

Age classification of employees and members of their households.
CHAPTER IX.-General progress and assimilation:

Ownership of homes..
Status of children in the households studied.
School attendance and progress.
Citizenship.......
Ability to speak English..

837 838 839 845 847

General tables

General explanation of tables.
List of text tables
List of general tables
List of charts.

853 855 923 927 929

THE OIL REFINING INDUSTRY.

CHAPTER I.

INTRODUCTION.

The growth of the industry—The increase in the number of employees-Localities

studied--Households studied-Members of households for whom detailed information was secured-Preparation of the report-Employees for whom information was secured—[Text Tables 1 to 11 and General Tables 1 to 3).

THE GROWTH OF THE INDUSTRY.

The expansion of the oil-refining industry in the country as a whole during the period 1880-1905 may be seen from the fact that in 1880 there was only $27,325,746 invested in refineries and their equipment, while in 1905 the capital commitment was $136,280,541. In 1880, also, the value of the annual product of the refineries was only $43,705,218, as contrasted with the annual output of $175,005,320 in the year 1905. The growth of the industry during this period, both for the United States and the State of New Jersey, is shown in detail in the table below:

Table 1.-Growth of the oil-refining industry in the United States, 1880–1905, and

New Jersey, 1890–1905.

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From the standpoint of recent immigration the most significant feature of the growth of the oil-refining industry is to be found in the resultant increase in the number of emplovees, owing to the fact that it was necessary to recruit the increased labor force from immigrant races of southern and eastern Europe. The following table sets forth

.

the increase in the average number of employees in New Jersey during the period 1890–1905, and in the country as a whole during the period 1880-1905:

Table 2.— The increase in the number of employees in the oil-refining industry in the

United States, 1880–1905, and in New Jersey, 1890–1905.

(Copied from Census records, 1880–1905.]

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Although small numbers of individual employees were studied in other localities, by far the greatest emphasis was put upon the study of the industry in Whiting, Ind., and Bayonne, N. J., for the reason that the oil-refining industry of the country is practically centered in these two localities. Detailed information was secured from the employees of the various refineries in these two localities and households, the heads of which were employed at the refineries. Detailed historical and descriptive data were also secured, as well as material bearing upon the industrial effects of immigration.

HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

A total of 525 households the heads of which were employed at the oil refineries were studied in detail. The following table shows, according to general nativity and race of head of household, the number and per cent of the households included in the investigation: Table 3.-Households studied, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[graphic]

21.1 10.1 16.6

Croatian..
English.
German.
Irish...
Italian, South
Lithuanian.
Magyar.

100.0

father...
Total native-born.
Total foreign-born.

10
11
15
96
69
31
11

1.9 2.1 2.9 18.3 13. 1 5.9 2.1

10 31 494

1.9 5.9 94.1 77 1,530

MEMBERS OF HOUSEHOLDS FOR WHOM DETAILED INFORMATION WAS

SECURED.

The table next presented shows by general nativity and race of head of household the persons in households studied and persons for whom detailed information was secured: Table 4.- Persons in households studied and persons for whom detailed information was secured, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY 07 HOUSEHOLDS.)

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The following table shows, according to general nativity and race of head of household, the sex of persons for whom detailed information was secured, in the households studied: TABLE 5.-Sex of persons for whom detailed information was secured, by general nativity

and race of head of household.

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Grand total...
Total native-born of foreign father.
Total native-born..
Total foreign-born

30

31

49.2
49.7
57.1

78 1,149

61 155 2,679

50.8 50.3

48296° -VOL 16—11-48

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