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Of the 1,340 male employees information for whom is presented in the preceding table 40.5 per cent are fully naturalized and only 31.4 per cent have taken out first papers. The Germans, of whom 66.7 per cent are fully naturalized, show the largest proportion of citizens. The proportion of second rank is shown by the Swedes, of whom 54.7 per cent are fully naturalized. The English and Finns each show between 40 and 50 per cent who are fully naturalized. Slightly less than 35 per cent of the North Italians are fully naturalized, while the French Canadians and Croatians each show a proportion smaller than that shown by the North Italians. The French Canadians show the largest proportion of persons who have taken out first papers—58.4

cent. Between 30 and 40 per cent each of the Swedish, English, Finns, and Germans have taken out first papers. The Croatians, of whom only 19.2 per cent have first papers, show the smallest proportion.

The tendency to acquire citizenship after designated periods of residence in this country is set forth in the following table, which shows, by years in the United States and race, the present political condition of foreign-born male employees who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming to the United States:

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Table 63.- Present political condition of foreign-born male employees who were 21

years of age or over at time of coming to the United States, by years in the United States and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes

only races 100 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

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Of the total number of males employed in the copper-mining industry who have been in the United States for from five to nine years only 17.9 per cent are fully naturalized, while 34.5 per cent have taken out first papers. Of those who have been here five years or over the English show the largest proportion fully naturalized, also the largest proportion who have first papers only. The smallest proportion in each column is shown by the North Italians. Of those who have lived in this country for ten years or over, 60.7 per cent are fully naturalized and 28.7 per cent have taken out first papers only; 72.3 per cent of the Finns in this period of residence are fully naturalized as compared with 64.7 per cent for the English and 56.5 per cent for the North Italians. In this period of residence the proportion of persons who have first papers only is greater among the English than any other race. It is 27.3 per cent for the English, as compared with 21.7 per cent of the North Italians and 20.2 per cent of the Finns.

The following table shows by race of individual the present political condition of foreign-born males in the households studied who had been in the United States five years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming to this country:

TABLE 64.Present political condition of foreign-born males who have been in the United

States 5 years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)
(By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States.)

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Of 284 foreign-born males for whom information was secured, 59.9 per cent are fully naturalized and 25.7 per cent have first papers only. The Poles report the greatest proportion, or 87.1 per cent, who are fully naturalized. The English and Finns follow with 77.3 per cent and 70 per cent, respectively, the North Italians showing slightly less than 60 per cent, and the Croatians 47.1 per cent of males 21 years of age or over at the time of coming to this country who are fully naturalized. The Croatians report over 40 per cent who have first papers only and the North Italians and Finns over 20 per cent. The English show 18.2 per cent and the Poles only 3.2 per cent who have first papers.

ABILITY TO SPEAK ENGLISH.

The table following shows, by sex and general nativity and race of individual, the percentage of persons 6 years of age or over who speak English,

TABLE 65.—Per cent of persons 6 years of age or over who speak English, by sex and general

nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 40 or more persons reporting. The totals, how

ever, are for all non-English-speaking races.)

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Upon information secured for a total of 1,822 persons 6 years of age or over, it is seen that 86.9 per cent speak English. A comparision between the males and females shows that a larger proportion of the total number of the former than of the latter have ability to speak English. This is true also of the total foreign-born, while of the total of the native-born of foreign father the females show a slightly larger proportion than the males. Considering the foreignborn by race it is seen that a larger proportion of the males than of the females of each race speak English-the proportion of males ranging from 100 per cent, as shown by the Norwegian, Polish, Slovenian, and Swedish, to 89 per cent, as shown by the Finnish, and the proportion of females ranging from 97.4 per cent, as shown by the Poles, to 32.3 per cent, as shown by the Slovenians. Over 98 per cent of both the native-born males and females of foreign fathers speak English.

The following table shows by race the percentage of foreign-born male employees of non-English-speaking races who speak English: Table 66.- Per cent of foreign-born male employees who speak English, by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 40 or more males reporting. The total, how.

ever, is for all non-English-speaking races.)

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Canadian, French.
Croatian,
Finnish..
German,
Italian, North.
Italian, South..
Lithuanian..

292

Magyar...
Norwegian.
Polish.
Slovenian.
Swedish.

.....

485 1,499

125
534
56
40

95.5
43.9
38.0
96.8
58.1
62.5
22.5

109
41
72
157
109

17.4 97.6 63.9 65.0 81.7

Total.

3, 607

52.3

From 3,607 persons reporting complete data it was learned that 52.3 per cent can speak English. Over 95 per cent of the Norwegian, German, and French Canadian employees can speak English; the Swedish show over 80 per cent, the Slovenians, Poles, and South Italians over 60 per cent, and the North Italians over 50 per cent who can speak English. The Croatian, Finnish, Lithuanian, and Magyar employees show between 17.4 per cent and 43.9 per cent who are able to speak English.

The following table shows, by age at time of coming to the United States and race of individual, the percentage of foreign-born persons 6 years of age or over in the households studied who could speak English.

Table 67.Per cent of foreign-born persons 6 years of age or over who speak English, by age at time of coming to the United States and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 40 or more persons reporting. The total, how.

ever, is for all non-English-speaking races.)

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The larger proportion of the total number of foreign-born persons 6 years of age or over who speak English is in the group who were under 14 years of age when they came to the United States. Similarly every specified race, except the Magyar, have a greater proportion speaking English among those who were under 14 at time of coming than among those who were 14 or over. The Magyars, on the contrary, have 85 per cent speaking English in the group who were 14 or over and only 43.8 per cent in the under 14 group, this per cent being the lowest shown in either group for any race.

A most marked relation between the age at time of coming and the proportion who speak English is shown among the Slovenians. In the age group under 14 years 100 per cent speak English; in the group 14 years or over only 57.1 per cent. The latter is the smallest proportion speaking English reported by any race in this group:

The table following shows, by years in the United States and race of individual, the percentage of foreign-born persons 6 years of age or over in the households studied who could speak English.

TABLE 68.—Per cent of foreign-born persons 6 years of age or over who speak English,

by years in the United States and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes

only non-English-speaking races with 40 or more persons reporting. The total, however, iş for all nonEnglish-speaking races.)

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Of the total number of foreign-born persons 6 years of age or over, the largest proportion speaking English are in the group who have been in the United States ten years or over; the smallest proportion, in the group who have been in this country under five years. This is likewise characteristic of every specified råce, except the Norwegian and French Canadian--the latter two have the largest proportion speaking English in the group who have been here five to nine years.

The progress of immigrants in acquiring the ability to speak the English language according to age at time of arrival in this country, is considered in the two tables next submitted. The first of these

. tables which follows, shows by race and age at time of coming to the United States, the percentage of foreign-born male employees who speak English.

Table 69.-Per cent of foreign-born male employees who speak English, by age at time of

coming to the United States and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 100 or more males reporting. The total, how

ever, is for all non-English-speaking races.)

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Canadian, French.
Croatian
Finnish
German.
Italian, North..
Magyar.
Slovenian
Swedish.

292

93.9
43.5
34.8
95. 3
57.3
16.7
64.3
80.8

495 1,499

125 531 109 157 103

100.0 80.0 93.8 100.0 100.0 (a)

95.5 43.9 38.0 96.8 58.1 17.4 65.0 81.7

100.0

Total..

3, 607

97.5

49.1

52.3

a Not computed, owing to small number involved, 48296°-VOL 16-11-20

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