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Of the 2,665 foreign-born husbands reporting from the total coppermining industry, 74.1 per cent have wives in this country. Of the total number 25.9 per cent report wife abroad. The Canadians, Germans, and Swedes each report over 95 per cent of the husbands as having wives in this country. The English and Finnish husbands, of whom between 80 and 84 per cent report wives in this country, show the next largest proportions. The Poles, South Italians, Slovenians, and North Italians follow in the order named. The Magyars and Croatians each show less than 40 per cent of the husbands as having wives in this country. From the above it will be seen that the races of newer immigration, for example, the Magyars, Croatians, and North and South Italians, show a larger proportion of married men whose wives are abroad than do the races of older immigration, such as the English, Swedish, Canadians, and Germans.
The tendency on the part of husbands of foreign birth who came to this country without their wives to send for them after specified periods of residence may be seen from the table next presented. This table shows, by race of husband and by years husband has been in the United States, the per cent of foreign-born husbands who report wife abroad:
TABLE 55.-Per cent of foreign-born husbands who report wife abroad, by race of husband and by years husband has been in the United States.
(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)
[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes only races with 100 or more husbands reporting.]
Of the foreign-born husbands from whom information was secured, whose residence in this country has been for less than five years, the Croatians show the largest proportion who report wife abroad. It is 88.6 per cent. The second rank is held by the North Italians, 70.5 per cent. Of the English and Finnish the proportion is between 50 and 54 per cent. Of those whose residence in the United States has been from five to nine years, 47.5 per cent of the Croatians report wife abroad. The North Italians show the next largest. The North Italians show the largest proportion of husbands whose wives are abroad in the period of ten or more years of residence in this country. The Croatians show the next largest proportion, while the French Canadians, English, and Finnish each show less than 5 per cent. Excepting the French Canadian, each race shows a decrease in the proportion of husbands reporting wife abroad as the period of residence in the United States increases.
The extent to which employees of foreign birth return to their native countries for long or short periods is indicated by the following table, which shows, by years in the United States and race, the visits abroad made by foreign-born male employees:
TABLE 56.— Visits abroad made by foreign-born male employees, by years in the United States and race.
(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)
[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes only races with 100 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]
Of the total number of foreign-born male employees 22.7 per cent report one or more visits abroad. The most marked tendency to visit abroad is shown by the French Canadians, over 50 per cent of whom have made at least one visit. The Germans report only 5.5 per cent who have visited abroad, the smallest proportion of any of the specified races. A considerably smaller proportion of the employees who have been in the United States less than five years report one or more visits abroad than of the groups of employees who have been here five to nine years or ten years or over. Further, with one exception, each specified race reports the smallest proportion who have visited abroad in the group who have been in this country under five years.
AGE CLASSIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES AND MEMBERS OF THEIR HOUSE
The age characteristics of the copper-mining employees may be seen from the table next presented, which shows, according to sex and general nativity and race of head of household, the percentage of persons within each specified age group.
TABLE 57.-Per cent of persons within each age group, by sex and general nativity and race of head of household.
(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)
[This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]
Of the total number of persons the largest proportions are from 6 to 13 and under 6 years of age. Slightly smaller proportions are in the 20 to 29 and 30 to 44 years of age group. These figures for the
total closely represent the age distribution of the foreign-born, all but 51 of the total 2,658 being of that class. The largest proportions of both males and females are in the same age groups, under 6, 6 to 13, 20 to 29, and 30 to 44.
The following table shows, by general nativity and race the percentage of male employees within each specified age group:
TABLE 58.-Per cent of male employees within each age group, by general nativity and race. (STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)
[This table includes only races with 40 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.}
The greater portion of the male employees are under 30 years of age, 24.4 per cent being 20 to 24 and 20.4 per cent being 25 to 29. The native-born whites of native father and the foreign-born employees are distributed most largely in the age groups 20 to 24 and 25 to 29, but the former report 16.4 per cent 14 to 19 years of age and the latter only 3.2 per cent. The largest proportion of employees 14 to 19 years of age are reported by the native-born of foreign father but even larger proportions of this class are 20 to 24 and 35 to 44 Of the group native-born of foreign father, the employees whos fathers were born in Finland report 64.1 per cent 14 to 19 and 28 per cent 20 to 24, while every other race of this class reports th greater proportion of employees 25 years of age or over. The Cro tians, English, Finns, North Italians, South Italians, Lithuanian and Slovenians report the largest proportions of employees under The French Canadians, Canadians other than French, Germans, Iri Norwegians, and Swedes report the largest proportions of employ 45 years of age or over.
GENERAL PROGRESS AND ASSIMILATION.
Ownership of homes-Status of children in the households studied-CitizenshipAbility to speak English-[Text Tables 59 to 70 and General Tables 42 to 50].
OWNERSHIP OF HOMES.
Home ownership by families the heads of which were of foreign birth may be considered as a strong indication of permanent settlement, and the facts in this connection relative to the families, the heads of which were employed in the copper industry, are set forth in the following table according to general nativity and race of head of family:
TABLE 59.-Number and per cent of families owning home, by general nativity and race of head of family.
Of a grand total of 512 families studied in the above table, 186 or 36.3 per cent (which is composed entirely of families the heads of which are foreign-born) own their homes. Of the foreign-born races reporting, the Polish, followed by the Magyar and Norwegian, shows the largest; and, with the exception of the English which shows none, the French Canadian, preceded by the Irish and Croatian, the smallest proportion owning their homes.