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A night-working immigrant shoemaker or a thrifty saloon keeper buys close in between two ancient householders, and they, disturbed by the nocturnal hammering or the vociferous joviality, quickly place their property on sale and as quickly find foreign buyers, where upon they leave the community.

This is the story heard on all sides among the older residents. Individuals will tell of dozens of families of their acquaintance who have moved away within the last five years. One borough assessor said that 30 families of older immigrant races in his ward had moved away in a period of five years. The assessor of the American section said that 100 families had moved out of the town in a like period of time.

In 1899, among the 15 councilmen of Community A, there were none of the recent immigrants. To-day 4 Lithuanians and 1 Pole, or onethird of the council, is made up of recent immigrants.

A canvass of the churches whose congregations are made up of Americans, English, Scotch, Welsh, Irish, and Germans was made with the view to ascertaining what loss or gain in numbers had occurred since 1900. The preaching in all these churches is done in English, with the qualification that in two of them German is also used in the service with the English.

Of the 12 churches canvassed, 6 reported losses in membership aggregating 1,734, 4 reported gains aggregating 234 members, while 1 had been sold and the other closed since the year 1900.

Two of the churches showing small gains since 1900 reported also the loss of 62 of their best families within the last two years. These losses have been offset in numbers by the admission to membership of children. In most cases, however, the financial losses sustained through the departure of the old families have not been made up by the new members. These gains in the other two churches were due in one case to recent arrivals of German-speaking Lithuanians, and in the other to the taking over of the remnants of the two dis solved churches. In other words, nearly 10 per cent of the whole population have in eight years been displaced by the more recent immigrants from continental Europe. The evidence shows also that the rate of displacement is rapidly increasing.

The figures in the foregoing table are based upon estimates made by the ward assessors. The canvasses of these men enable them to give fairly reliable data upon the number of families, and their experience as practical politicians render them somewhat authoritative upon the number of adult males and their distribution among the Their estimates were corrected in some instances to agree with figures obtained from priests, prominent race leaders, and other reliable sources.

races.

The average estimated number of individuals per family for the most important races in the community are set forth in the following

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In the foregoing statement the total number of persons in each racial group is the product of the number of families by the average number of individuals per family.

POPULATION.

The population statistics for the borough, according to the Twelfth Census, and the estimated figures in 1908 are as follows:

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The following table shows approximately the distribution by races and family groups of the estimated population of the community in 1908:

TABLE 58.-Distribution of the estimated population of the community in 1908, by race and family groups.

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CHAPTER III.

WORKING CONDITIONS.

Mining accidents-[Text Tables 59 and 60.]

MINING ACCIDENTS.

In the annual reports of the Pennsylvania department of mines attention is occasionally called to the greater frequency of accidents among the non-English-speaking employees. Thus the report for 1905 says:

*** During the year 1904 the number of English-speaking miners (including Americans, English, Welsh, Scotch, Irish, and Germans) killed was 88; other nationalities, 145. During 1905 the number of English-speaking miners killed was 98; other nationalities, 210.

The same report also says that the reports of the mine inspectors conclusively show that "more than half of the fatalities (58 per cent) are due to negligence, carelessness, recklessness, and ignorance on the part of the victims." Connecting the two statements, the immediate assumption is that these qualities are more characteristic of the immigrant miner than they are of the native. If so, then which of the foreign races show these weaknesses in the highest degree?

The annual reports of the department of mines do not give sufficient data for the answering of this question. While showing the nationalities of both the killed and injured for many years, they shed no light upon the distribution among the races of the total colliery employeesa knowledge of which would be necessary before any comparisons on this point could be made.

The largest of the 187 operators in the anthracite field is accustomed to take an annual census of its employees by nationalities. In the following table the census taken by this company for 1907 is paralleled with a compilation of the accidents in its collieries during the years of 1906 and 1907, as given in the state mine inspectors' reports.

TABLE 59.-Number and per cent of accidents among employees of a coal mining company during the year 1907, by race.

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TABLE 59.-Number and per cent of accidents among employees of a coal mining company during the year 1907, by race-Continued.

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In the above tabulation accidents of both the fatal and nonfatal classes were included, as it was considered that the final character of the injury was in itself an accident without much bearing upon its cause, and the combination of both classes enabled comparison upon a wider basis.

A number of accidents slightly less than 500 might be considered a very slender basis of comparison. And indeed it would be if the element of chance in mining accidents were actually as great as it appears to be at first sight. As a matter of fact there are few hazardous occupations where good judgment, habitual caution, and skill more certainly minimize danger, and recklessness and bad thinking more certainly invite it, than in the mining of coal.

There are, of course, many accidents which no degree of carefulness will prevent, but, according to the department of mines, 48 per cent of the mining casualties are due to the stupidity or carelessness of the victims themselves and 10 per cent are due to the carelessness of persons other than the victims.

Before undertaking an examination of the racial differences possibly revealed in the foregoing table, it may be well to notice how the various classes and races compare in respect to inside and outside positions.

The following table shows the number and per cent of inside employees of the same mining company:

TABLE 60.--Number and per cent of inside employees, by race or class.

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