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and washeries, 2 lumber yards, 2 branches of Chicago packing houses, several smaller industries, and the freight houses of the various roads. The combined schedules of the three roads show a total of 47 trains arriving and departing daily. This number is made up of 21 passenger, 10 merchandise freight trains, and 16 coal trains. Besides these there are several coal and freight extras. The average number of coaches in the passenger trains is three, except on Saturdays and holidays, when the increased traffic requires usually five cars. Most of the travel is between the nearby cities and villages, and is occasioned by shopping trips, visits to relations, or pleasure excursions among the inhabitants.
Of the local immigrant races the Lithuanians and the Polish are the greatest travelers. The Lithuanians hold an annual excursion, which is so successfully managed that it is being attended each year by larger and larger numbers of people from the other races.
The railroads make no special provisions for the immigrants either in the way of separate ticket windows, special tickets, baggage, or freight rates.
The greater part of the local travel is performed over the two electric trolley lines which are operated by a traction company. One line extends eastward and the other follows the valley in a westerly direction. At the latter place trolley connection can be made with Centralia, Mount Carmel, and Shamokin. The same company runs a branch line from Girardville through Mahanoy Plane, Maizeville, and Gilberton to Mahanoy City.
Along the routes of these trolley lines there are many collieries, and a large part of the income of the road is derived from transporting the coal workers to and from their homes. At certain times of the day special cars are provided on which preference is given to the colliery employees, and on all the cars certain seats are set aside for their especial use.
Halfway between Girardville and Ashland, about 6 miles from Community A, the trolley company has a small summer amusement resort which is largely patronized by the immigrant races of the younger generation. The vaudeville theater, dancing pavilion, and skating rink attract immense crowds nightly during the hot season.
The trolley is sometimes used for transporting injured miners to the State Hospital for Injured Persons of the Anthracite Coal Region of Pennsylvania, which is situated at Fountain Springs, near Ashland. Occasionally a series of cars is used by the immigrants as a funeral train when interment is made at one of the cemeteries along the route of the trolley line.
The only industries in Community A which employ labor to any extent are those devoted to the production of anthracite coal, beer, and the building industry. The anthracite coal industry employs about 85 per cent of the total number of workmen in the community. The table presented below gives a list of the common occupations in the collieries as they appear on the company pay rolls. "Inside" and "Outside" indicate whether the work is below the surface or on the ground. The inside men are all concerned with cutting the coal from its bed and lifting it to the surface, while the outside labor is
engaged in preparing the coal for shipment-breaking it up, sorting out the slate and rock and separating it into standard sizes. The occupations are labeled skilled (SK) or unskilled (UN) in accordance with the criterion that a skilled occupation is one which involves special training and responsibility or manual dexterity. The number of hours per week worked in the colliery positions is uniformly fiftyfour (six days at nine hours each), except in the case of certain employees connected with the ventilation, production of steam, and running of the shaft elevators, who frequently have to work on Sundays. The basis of payment is the week of fifty-four hours, but in the following table the approximate rate per day is also entered.
TABLE 54.-Approximate rate of payment per week, per day, and per month.
TABLE 54.-Approximate rate of payment per week, per day, and per month—Continued.
The scale of wages given in the above table is the one which is in use in the most important Community A collieries, and, with the exception of the positions of foreman, assistant foreman, and fire boss, whose pay varies in the different collieries according to individual experience and importance of position, it holds good for all other collieries in the locality.
In certain positions work is done on Sundays for which extra pay is given. This affects fire bosses, inside pumpmen, fan engineers, inside stablemen, and outside hoisting engineers, who generally have to work alternate Sundays. The weekly wages set down for these positions in the preceding table is the average of two weeks, one of which contains Sunday pay. The fire bosses receive time and a half for Sunday work.
The wages entered in the table by the week are subject, except where stated otherwise, to a percentage increase, which varies from month to month in accordance with the fluctuations in the wholesale price of coal. In past years it has varied from 0 per cent to 8 per cent, but the average for the year is generally in the neighborhood of 4 per cent.
In the case of one large class of mine workers the rate of pay is based on the number of cars of coal loaded, the number of yards a gangway has been advanced, or the number of sets of timber put up. This class comprises over one-half of all the inside employees and includes the following positions: Contract miner, breast; contract miner, robbing; contract miner, gangways; timberman (contractor). The contractors all employ gangs of miners and laborers whose wages are fixed by the companies and are found uniform throughout the several collieries.
The earnings of the contract miners themselves, however, vary greatly through differences in the thickness of the coal seam, amount of rock, and individual efficiency. During the year of June, 1907, to June, 1908, the average per man, including contractors and their miners and laborers, in one colliery was $14.46, plus percentage, per week. The average for timbermen and their miners and laborers for the same period at the same colliery was $13.98, plus percentage, per week for each employee.
The actual number of days worked during the twelve months ending July 31, 1908, in the Community's collieries are presented in the following tables:
TABLE 55.-Number of days worked in collieries in Community A during the twelve months ending July 31, 1908.
TABLE 55.-Number of days worked in collieries in Community A during the twelve montha ending July 31, 1908-Continued.
The time periods in the above tables are those in which the breaker machinery was run. Employees not dependent on the operation of the machinery averaged in some cases a greater number of hours for the total period, but the total working time for the year rarely exceeded 48 weeks.
In the breweries, the occupations, rates of pay per day, and hours of work per week are set forth in the statement presented below:
The breweries were not established until 1892, but they have made a pronounced development in the comparatively short period they have been operated. One large establishment was placed in operation in the year 1900.
The wages per day and hours per week in the principal occupations in the building trades are shown in the following statement: