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made useless for building purposes through the cave-ins that pit the surface as the result of removing the pillars in the underlying mines.

The climate of this section of Pennsylvania may be described as mildly temperate. West winds prevail throughout the greater part of the year, and as the general trend of the valley is from west to east the hills about Shenandoah do not afford it much protection.

Observations of the rainfall, made for the Weather Bureau at Girardville, which is 41 miles west of Shenandoah, in the same valley, show that the average annual precipitation in the locality reaches 54.67 inches.

In the year 1907 the last killing frost observed during the spring occured on May 12, and the first severe frost of the autumn came on October 2.

During the late summer months of 1908 the whole region was afflicted with a long-continued drought, during which the Shenandoah city drinking-water supply gave out completely. In September and October of 1908 all water for drinking purposes had to be brought from mountain springs, many of them quite distant from the town.

The same geological peculiarities which are responsible for the community's poverty in cultivable soil and ground area are, on the other hand, the cause of its extraordinary wealth in anthracite coal beds. The upheavals which wrinkled the terrestrial surface into valleys so steep and narrow that their sides would not hold the soil also folded and piled up the underlying carboniferous strata into valuable deposits of unusual thickness and of comparatively small proportions of unprofitable rock and slate.

In the Northern field the coal measures are broad, thin, numerous, and level; in the Middle and Southern fields they are narrow, thick, few in number, and generally steeply inclined. În the former region the vertical-shaft mine entrance is employed, while in the latter the slope entrance is used.

The principal coal beds underlying the community and their average thickness are shown in the following statement:

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In the early workings one vein was encountered in an inverted position, and so doubled upon itself that in some places the coal was 300 feet thick. Another very valuable deposit occurred in an inversion found in the Buck Mountain vein. This displacement was due to a folding over of the strata, which, from a commercial point of view, doubled the value of the coal deposits.

At places the top and bottom splits of the Mammoth vein come together, forming a thickness of from 60 to 70 feet. Usually, however,

a the thickness of the veins found in the mines are from 40 to 50 feet in thickness and of excellent quality.

These hard-coal deposits of the region brought Community A into existence, and because its restricted ground area has not permitted the establishment of other industries, coal mining is still the main industry of the community and the principal occupation of the inhabitants. Either within the city or on the edge of its boundaries there are seven mining operations, five breakers, and two washeries. These establishments employ nearly 4,000 men and boys, and in 1906 produced 1,301,015 tons of anthracite coal, or nearly 2.2 per cent of the total production of the State of Pennsylvania. In 1907 the local production was 1,617,912 tons, or nearly 2.1 per cent of the total state production.

In neighboring collieries, from a half to 3 miles away, something like 3,000 more residents of the community find employment, so that it may be said that about 85 per cent of the working population of the borough is employed in the hard-coal industry.

The community offers a poor market in which to dispose of products from other localities. Its trade is almost wholly retail, and is without any specialties save perhaps those of mining supplies and overalls. A part of the demand for the latter is supplied by a small local factory.

The wholesale business in the city is practically confined to five distilled liquor firms, two branches of Chicago packing houses, two lumber concerns, and a wholesale bakery, all of which have some business in neighboring towns.

The farm and garden produce is supplied by a hundred or more farmers who drive in regularly from the surrounding country. Fruits and a few vegetables are also shipped in from Philadelphia.

Community A's great export is of course anthracite coal, large shipments of which are sent to Perth Amboy, Philadelphia, and other tide-water shipping points. The two breweries ship about 50,000 barrels of beer annually to the neighboring towns. A small outside business is also done by a cigar factory, a knitting mill, a slaughterhouse, and a fertilizer company.

Community A, while not located on any of the transcontinental trunk lines, nevertheless enjoys ample railroad facilities by means of branch connections with the following transportation systems which established communication with the borough in the order given: The Philadelphia and Reading Railroad, the Lehigh Valley Railroad, the Pennsylvania Railroad.

The Reading road is used mainly as a carrier for the collieries, while its passenger traffic is very light compared with that which is enjoyed by the two other lines. This is largely due to the roundabout way by which it enters the community.

Nearly all of the travel toward the north and the east takes place over the Lehigh Valley road, which affords connections at Hazleton with the Wilkes-Barre and Hazleton Electric Railway and at Mauch Chunk with through trains for New York City,

The Pennsylvania road is a short spur which runs down to Pottsville and there makes connection with through trains for Philadelphia and other southern points.

The total trackage in the borough belonging to these railroads amounts to 3} miles of single and double track. There are also 27 laterals and sidings, amounting to 1} miles, which supply 7 collieries and washeries, 2 lumber yards, 2 branches of Chicago packing houses, several smaller industries, and the freight houses of the various roads.

The combined schedules of the three roads show a total of 47 trains arriving and departing daily. This number is made up of 21 passenger, 10 merchandise freight trains, and 16 coal trains. Besides these there are several coal and freight extras. The average number of coaches in the passenger trains is three, except on Saturdays and holidays, when the increased traffic requires usually five cars. Most of the travel is between the nearby cities and villages, and is occasioned by shopping trips, visits to relations, or pleasure excursions among the inhabitants.

Of the local immigrant races the Lithuanians and the Polish are the greatest travelers. The Lithuanians hold an annual excursion, which is so successfully managed that it is being attended each year by larger and larger numbers of people from the other races.

The railroads make no special provisions for the immigrants either in the way of separate ticket windows, special tickets, baggage, or freight rates.

The greater part of the local travel is performed over the two electric trolley lines which are operated by a traction company. One line extends eastward and the other follows the valley in a westerly direction. At the latter place trolley connection can be made with Centralia, Mount Carmel, and Shamokin. The same company runs a branch line from Girardville through Mahanoy Plane, Maizeville, and Gilberton to Mahanoy City.

Along the routes of these trolley lines there are many collieries, and a large part of the income of the road is derived from transporting the coal workers to and from their homes. At certain times of the day special cars are provided on which preference is given to the colliery employees, and on all the cars certain seats are set aside for their especial use.

Halfway between Girardville and Ashland, about 6 miles from Community A, the trolley company has a small summer amusement resort which is largely patronized by the immigrant races of the younger generation. The vaudeville theater, dancing pavilion, and skating rink attract immense crowds nightly during the hot season.

The trolley is sometimes used for transporting injured miners to the State Hospital for Injured Persons of the Anthracite Coal Region of Pennsylvania, which is situated at Fountain Springs, near Ashland. Occasionally a series of cars is used by the immigrants as a funeral train when interment is made at one of the cemeteries along the route of the trolley line.

GENERAL INDUSTRIES.

The only industries in Community A which employ labor to any extent are those devoted to the production of anthracite coal, beer, and the building industry. The anthracite coal industry employs about 85 per cent of the total number of workmen in the community.

The table presented below gives a list of the common occupations in the collieries as they appear on the company pay rolls. “Inside"

. “ and “Outside" indicate whether the work is below the surface or on the ground. The inside men are all concerned with cutting the coal from its bed and lifting it to the surface, while the outside labor is engaged in preparing the coal for shipment-breaking it up, sorting out the slate and rock and separating it into standard sizes. The occupations are labeled skilled (SK) or unskilled (UN) in accordance with the criterion that a skilled occupation is one which involves special training and responsibility or manual dexterity. The number of hours per week worked in the colliery positions is uniformly fiftyfour (six days at nine hours each), except in the case of certain employees connected with the ventilation, production of steam, and running of the shaft elevators, who frequently have to work on Sundays. The basis of payment is the week of fifty-four hours, but in the following table the approximate rate per day is also entered.

Table 54.--Approximate rate of payment per week, per day, and per month.

INSIDE WORK.

Wages.

Occupation.

Skill.

Per week. Per day.

Per month.

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Bottomman.

Do..
Car runner.
Chargeman, no percentage.
Chute starter
Coupler...
Door boy.
Driller, no percentage.
Driller's helper, no percentage.
Driver...

Do.
Engineer, fan.
Engineer, hoist.
Engineer, locomotive.

Do...
Fan boy.
Fire boss.
Assistant fire boss.
Foreman.
Assistant foreman.
Laborer, company

Do.
Lampman.
Loader boss.
Assistant loader boss.
Loader..
Miner, company
Contract miner, breasta.
Contract miner, robbing a.
Contract miner, gangwaye.
Miner, contractor's..
Mule shoer
Plane runner.
Pumpman.
Repairman.
Repairman's laborer.
Roadman..
Roadman's laborer
Spragger.
Stableman.
Switchman.
Timberman (contractor)..
Topman.

60.00

UN
UN
SK
SK
UN
UN
SK
SK

11.83
11.83
13.92

SK

1.97
1. 97

2. 32
2. 00 to

2.30 3.00 to

10.00
3.00 to

5.00
2.52
2.32
2. 32

SK
SK
SK
SK
SK
SK
UN
SK

15.12
13. 92
13.92

$70.93 and percentage.

13. 92
11.83
13. 92
11.83

8. 12
14.21
11.83

UN
UN
UN
SK
IN

2.32
1.97
2.32
1.97
1.35
2. 72

1.97
2.00 to

5.00
1.97

11.83

a These figures for the contract miners are estimated averages.

48296° --VOL 16--11--042

TABLE 54.- Approximate rate of payment per week, per day, and per month-Continued.

OUTSIDE WORK.

Wages.

Occupation.

Skill.

Per week. Per day.

Per month.

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Ashman.
Blacksmith.
Blacksmith's helper.
Car loader, boss.

Do....

Do..
Carpenter, boss.
Carpenter.
Car runner
Chute boss
Clerk.
Assistant clerk,
Coal inspector.
Coal sales clerk
Assistant coal sales clerk.
Driver...
Engineer, breaker.
Engineer, compressor.

Do.
Engineer, hoisting.

Do..
Engineer, locoinotive.
Feeder

Do..

Do..
Fireman...

Do.
Assistant foreman.
Jig runner, boss.

Do.
Laborer, man.
Laborer, boy

Do..
Machinist.
Messenger.
Oiler.
Platformman
Pumpman.
Repairman.
Roa Iman
Slate picker, man.
Slate picker, boy.

Do..
Do.
Do..
Do.
Do.

Do.
Spragger.
Stableman.
Shipper..
Storekeeper
Supplyman.
Switchman.
Team loader.
Teamster, contractor..
Timber cutter, contractor.
Timber cutter's laborer.

Do..
Tipman.
Topman.
Watchman.
Weig'ımaster.

UN
SK
UN
UN
UN
UN
SK
SK
UN
UN
SK
UN
SK
SK
UN
UN
SK
SK
SK
SK
SK
SK
UN
UN
UN
SK
SK
SK
UN
UN
UN
UN
UN
SK
UN
UN
UN
UN
SK
SK
UN
UN
UN
Un
UN
UN
IN
UN
UN
UN
SK
SK
SK
UN
UN
UN

104.50 70.00

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75.00

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SK
SK
SK
UN
UN
UN
SK

15. 12
12. 60
11.60
11. 60

$18.72 and percentage. $35.00 and percentage.

The scale of wages given in the above table is the one which is in use in the most important Community A collieries, and, with the exception of the positions of foreman, assistant foreman, and fire boss, whose pay varies in the different collieries according to individual experience and importance of position, it holds good for all other collieries in the locality.

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