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The preceding table shows that 84.5 per cent of persons who were under 14 years of age at the time of arrival in the United States can speak English and 45.1 per cent who were 14 years of age or over at the time of coming to this country can speak English. All of the foreign-born races show over 75 per cent of persons who were under 14 years of age at the time of coming to the United States can speak English. Only one race, the Slovak, shows over 50 per cent of persons who were 14 years of age or over at the time of arrival in this country who are able to speak English.

The progress made by persons of non-English-speaking races in acquiring the ability to speak English after stated periods of residence in this country is exhibited by the following table, which shows by race of individual and by years in the United States, the percentage of foreign-born persons 6 years of age or over in the households studied who speak English:

TABLE 53.-Per cent of foreign-born persons 6 years of age or over who speak English, by

years in the United States and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes

only non-English-speaking races with 40 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all nonEnglish-speaking races.)

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The above table shows that 23.8 per cent of the persons reporting who have been in the United States under five years, speak English, and 55.9 per cent of those with a residence from five to nine years, while 67.1 per cent who have been in this country ten years or over are able to speak English. Slovaks show a very high percentage who have been in this country under five years speaking English when contrasted with the other races enumerated, while Poles show comparatively small proportions. All of the races except Lithuanians show over 50 per cent of persons with a residence of from five to nine years who can speak English. South Italians show the highest percentage and Poles the lowest percentage of persons who have been in this country ten years or over and who can speak English.

PART II.—THE ANTHRACITE COAL MINING INDUSTRY IN A

REPRESENTATIVE COMMUNITY.

645

PART II.-THE ANTHRACITE COAL MINING INDUSTRY IN A REPRESENT

ATIVE COMMUNITY.

CHAPTER I.

INTRODUCTION.

Description of the locality-General industries-Inducements and obstacles to

immigration--Local prejudice- [Text Tables 54 and 55).

DESCRIPTION OF THE LOCALITY.

The general region about Community A is industrially described as the anthracite coal fields of eastern Pennsylvania. The fields are divided into three districts, known as the Northern, the Middle, and the Southern. All three districts are irregular, elongated areas having the same general direction-from northeast to southwestas the mountain ridges which inclose them. The Northern district lies in the gently undulating Wyoming Valley, whose broad slopes afford ample room for expanding cities and extensive manufacturing plants.

The middle and Southern fields, however, are characterized by quite different physical features. The underlying strata are fluted and twisted, wrinkled by folds and chopped up by faults. The Northern district, with an area of 200 square miles, is practically one long, wide basin, while the Middle district, covering an area of 130 square miles, is broken up into nine basins. All of the latter are held in narrow valleys whose steep walls are cut here and there by small creeks. This irregularity of surface causes the railroad system of the region to appear on the maps like a tangled skein of threads.

It is in this rugged, uneven country of the Middle coal field that Community A is located. Situated in the northern part of Schuylkill County, West Mahanoy Township, it occupies almost the middle point of the chain of ragged coal basins which begins at Upper Lehigh in Luzerne County and swings down through Carbon, Schuylkill, and Columbia counties to Trevorton, in Northumberland County.

The 834 acres covered by the borough lie in a small valley scarcely a mile wide, running from northeast to southwest, the floor of which is about 1,300 feet above sea level. Directly up from the borough's northern boundary to an altitude of 482 feet rises North Mahanoy Mountain. The southern limit of the town is formed by a rounded hill about 100 feet high, but the residential part extends only to the lowlands of Mahanoy Creek, where the huge heaps of mine refuse take up three-eighths of the width of the valley.

On both the east and the west the borough is hemmed in by collieries, mountainous culm banks, and coal lands which have been

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