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CHAPTER VI.

SALIENT CHARACTERISTICS.

Literacy-Conjugal condition-Age classification of members of households

studied—[Text Tables 42 to 46 and General Tables 27 to 31).

LITERACY.

The general literacy of the persons in households studied is exhibited by the following table. This table shows, by sex and general nativity and race of individual, the percentage of persons 10 years of age or over in the households studied who read and the percentage who read and write:

Table 42.Per cent of persons 10 years of age or over who read and per cent who read and

write, by sex and general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 40 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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The above table shows that 70.5 per cent of persons reporting can read and 59.9 per cent can both read and write. The percentage of males who can read and who can both read and write is slightly higher in each instance than that of females. Persons native-born of native father report that all of their number can read and write, native-born of foreign father show slightly smaller proportions, while foreign-born show a very much lower percentage than either of the first two mentioned. Of the race groups native-born of foreign father, Ruthenians and Slovaks show 100 per cent of their number as able to read and write, Lithuanians and Poles, in the order named, showing somewhat smaller percentages. It should be noted that the Poles show a higher percentage of females than of males who can read and who can both read and write. Of the foreignborn races, Ruthenians and Slovaks show the greatest degree of literacy, while Lithuanians show a high percentage of illiterates. While 52 per cent of South Italian males are able to read and 50 per cent are able to read and write, only 5 per cent of the females show TABLE 45.—Per cent of persons in each conjugal condition, by sex, age groups, and by general nativity and race of individual-('ontinued.

5 the same ability.

The degree of literacy prevailing among persons of foreign birth, in the households studied, after designated periods of residence in this country, may be seen from the table next presented. This table shows the percentage of foreign-born persons 10 years of age or over who read and the percentage who read and write, by race of individual and by years in the United States:

TABLE 43.- Per cent of foreign-born persons 10 years of age or over who read and per cent

who read and write, by years in the United States and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes

only races with 40 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all soreign-born.)

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The preceding table shows that the greatest degree of literacy exists among persons who have resided in the United States from five to nine years, while the proportion who can read and who can both read and write is greater in the group including persons who have lived in the United States ten years or over than in that showing those with a residence of under five years. Poles, Ruthenians, and Slovaks show a greater proportion of literates than South Italians or Lithuanians, the last named race showing only 6.6 per cent who can both read and write and who have a residence of under

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five years.

The literacy of the foreign-born persons in the households studied, according to their ages at the time of arriving in the United States, is indicated by the table next presented. This table shows the percentage of foreign-born persons 10 years or over who read and the percentage who read and write, by race of individual and by age at time of coming to the United States,

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Table 44,- Per cent of foreign-born persons 10 years of age or over who read and per cent who read and write, by age at time of coming to ihe United States and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 40 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign

born.)

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The preceding table shows the percentage of persons who can read and the percentage of persons who can both read and write to be much larger in the group of those who were under 14 years of age at the time of coming to the United States than that of those who were 14 or over at the time of arrival in this country. The proportion of persons who can both read and write is somewhat smaller than the proportion of those who can read.

CONJUGAL CONDITION.

The conjugal condition of the persons in the households studied is indicated in the following table. The table shows, by sex, age groups, and by general nativity and race of individual, the percentage of persons in each conjugal condition. Table 45.- Per cent of persons in each conjugal condition, by sex, age groups, and by

general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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FEMALE.

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The greater proportion of the persons in each specified age group are married, ranging from 56.4 per cent of those 20 to 29 years of age to 86.8 per cent of those 30 to 44. However, the proportion of persons 45 years old or over who are widowed is considerably larger than the proportion of widowed in the preceding group. In the group 20 to 29 years of age the greater proportion of the persons native-born of foreign father are single, but the greater proportion of the foreignborn are married. In the succeeding age group there is not a sufficient number of persons native-born of foreign father for comparison. The greatest difference in the conjugal condition of the races is in the age group 20 to 29 years old, where the proportion of married persons ranges from 44.7 per cent of the Poles to 79 per cent of the Slovaks. The most striking difference in the conjugal condition of the males and females is also in the age group 20 to

In this group 95.8 per cent of the females are married as compared with 36.7 per cent of the males. In the age group 30 to 44 years there is also a predominating proportion of females who are married. In the group 45 years of age or over there is a predominating proportion of males who are married, but it should be noted that in this group the females show a considerably larger proportion widowed than the males.

29 years.

AGE CLASSIFICATION OF MEMBERS OF HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

The age

characteristics of the members of the households studied are exhibited by the following table, which shows, by sex and general nativity and race of head of household, the percentage of persons within each age group.

Table 46.- Per cent of persons within each age group, by sex and general nativity and race

of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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Total native-born..
Total foreign-born....

64 2,817

17.2 19.8

20.3 20.8

4.7 4.4

18.8 19.8

21.9 21.5

15. 6 6.4

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