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SIZE OF HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

The following table exhibits the range in size of households studied by showing, according to general nativity and race of head of household, the percentage of households of each specified number of persons:

TABLE 36.- Per cent of households of each specified number of persons, by general nativity

and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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The preceding table shows that less than 40 per cent of the total number of households studied have from two to five persons per household, over 50 per cent of households are composed of from six to nine persons, and 10.3 per cent are made

up

of ten or more persons. Ruthenians show the highest percentage of households composed of from two to five persons and Poles the lowest percentage. Poles report a greater proportion of households composed of nine or more persons.

CONGESTION.

Preceding tables indicate the extent to which crowding prevails in the households of mine workers. The degree of congestion and its effect upon living arrangements is more directly set forth in the following series of tabulations. The first table presented shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the average number of persons in apartments of each specified number of rooms.

TABLE 37.-- Average number of persons in apartments of each specified number of rooms,

by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

Average number of persons in apartments of each specified number of rooms.

General nativity and

race of head of household.

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Native-born of native

father, White. Foreign-born:

Italian, South..
Lithuanian.
Polish..
Ruthenian.
Slovak

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6.37 6.53 7.12 5.92 6.31

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a Not computed, owing to small number involved. The preceding table shows that more congested conditions exist in apartments of a small number of rooms than in larger apartments. Apartments of two rooms show 4.22 persons, apartments of three rooms show 5.35 persons, and apartments of four rooms show 6.25 persons per apartment. Apartments of five and six rooms show 7.20 persons and 7.60 persons, respectively. The total average number of persons for all apartments, irrespective of the number of rooms, is 637 persons per 100 apartments.' Persons native-born of native father report a much lower average number of persons per apartment than foreign-born. Of the several foreign-born races, Ruthenians show 4.07 persons in apartments of two rooms.

ALÍ races except Lithuanians show over five persons in apartments of three rooms, Poles and Ruthenians show the most crowded conditions in apartments of four rooms, while Poles and Slovaks show the greatest congestion in apartments of five rooms. In apartments of six rooms Ruthenians and Lithuanians show a considerably higher average number of persons than Poles.

The following table shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the average number of persons per apartment, per room, and per sleeping room: Table 38.--- Average number of persons per apartment, per room, and per sleeping room,

by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

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Total native-born.
Total foreign-born.

4.00

16 439

1.60 2.91

6. 46

1.51

The preceding table shows the average number of persons per apartment to be 6.37, the average number of persons per room to be 1.45, and the average number of persons per sleeping room to be 2.86. Foreign-born groups show a much higher average number of persons per apartment, per room, and per sleeping room than do those nativeborn of native father. Polish households report a considerably larger average number of persons per apartment than the other races, while Ruthenians show the smallest average number of persons per apartment. Ruthenians show the highest average number of persons per room and South Italians the lowest average. Ruthenians also show the highest average number of persons per sleeping room and South Italians the lowest.

The following table exhibits persons per room according to general nativity and race of head of household:

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TABLE 39.-Persons per room, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

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The above table shows 87.5 per cent of households having one or more persons per room; 26.8 per cent, two or more persons per room; 3.3 per cent having three or more persons per room; and 0.7 per cent having four or more persons per room. Of the foreign-born races, Slovaks show the highest percentage having one or more persons per room, Ruthenians the highest percentage having two or more persons per room, and Polish households the greatest proportion having three or more persons per room,

Ruthenians and Slovaks show small proportions of households having four or more persons per room, while Lithuanians and Polish show no households having four or more persons per room.

The table further shows the total average of 145 persons per 100 rooms, foreign-born showing 151 persons per 100 rooms, as compared with 57 persons per 100 rooms in households the heads of which are native-born of native father. Ruthenians show the highest average number of persons per room, Slovaks, Poles, Lithuanians, and South Italians following in the order named.

The following table shows the range in the number of persons per sleeping room, by general nativity and race of head of household:

TABLE 40.--Persons per sleeping room, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

General nativity

and race of head of household.

Number of households having Per cent of households having
Average each specified number of each specified number of
Total number persons per sleeping room. persons per sleeping room.
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The preceding table shows an average number of 286 persons per 100 sleeping rooms, 89 per cent of the total number of households studied showing two or more persons per sleeping room, 55.4 per cent of households three or more persons per sleeping room, 22.2 per cent four or more persons per sleeping room, 8.8 per cent five or more, and 3.5 per cent six or more persons per sleeping room. The total foreign-born show an average of 291 persons per 100 sleeping rooms as contrasted with 160 persons per 100 sleeping rooms in households of native-born of native father. Among the foreign-born races, Lithuanians show the highest percentage of households having two or more persons per sleeping room, and Poles the lowest percentage. Ruthenians show the highest percentage of households having each other specified number of persons per sleeping room and Lithuanians the lowest. Ruthenians show an average of 304 persons per 100 sleeping rooms and South Italians 224 persons per 100 sleeping rooms.

The final table of the series, which is next presented, indicates the effect upon living arrangements of congestion within the households studied, by showing, by general nativity and race of head of household, the number and percentage of households regularly sleeping in all except each specified number of rooms.

Table 41.- Number and per cent of housholds regularly sleeping in all except each

specified number of rooms, by general nativity and race of head of household.

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The preceding table shows the average number of rooms to be 438 per 100 households, the average number of sleeping rooms being 223 per 100 households. Native-born of native father show a considerably higher number of rooms per household than foreign-born and also a considerably higher average number of sleeping rooms per household than foreign-born. The totals further show that 2.2 per cent of households use all rooms to sleep in, 25.9 per cent sleep in all except one room, and 35.8 per cent use all except two rooms. Of the foreign-born races, South Italians show the highest average number of rooms per household and Ruthenians the lowest. South Italians also show the highest average number of sleeping rooms per household and Ruthenians the lowest. Poles show the highest percentage of households sleeping in all rooms, while Lithuanians show no households using all rooms for sleeping purposes. Ruthenians show a considerably higher percentage of households using all except one room than the other races and Poles the lowest percentage. Poles show the greatest proportion of households using all except two rooms to sleep in, followed by Lithuanians, Slovaks, and Ruthenians, in the order named.

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