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vaks show a rather high percentage of persons who worked twelve months when compared with the percentages of persons belonging to other races who worked for this period of time. The table further shows that the greatest proportion of males of all races shown in the table worked nine months or over.

THE IMMIGRANT AND ORGANIZED LABOR.

The extent to which the mine workers are members of labor organizations is exhibited by the table next presented. It shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the affiliation with trade unions of males in the households studied who were 21 years of age or over and who were working for wages.

TABLE 27.-Affiliation with trade unions of males 21 years of age or over who are working for wages, by general nativity and race of individual.

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The preceding table shows that slightly over 75 per cent of the total number of males reporting are affiliated with trade unions. The foreign-born group shows 77.5 per cent, as compared with 25.8 per cent of native-born who are affiliated with trade unions. Lithuanians show the highest percentage of persons who belong to unions, followed by Slovaks, Ruthenians, Poles, and South Italians in the order named. The tendency of employees to become identified with labor organizations after designated periods of residence in this country is exhibited by the following table, which shows, by years in the United States and race of individual, the affiliation with trade unions of foreign-born males in the households studied who were 21 years of age or over and who were working for wages:

TABLE 28.-Affiliation with trade unions of foreign-born males 21 years of age or over who are working for wages, by years in the United States and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 200 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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The preceding table shows that 65.4 per cent of males who have been in the United States under five years are affiliated with trade unions, 82.1 per cent with a residence of from five to nine years belong to unions, and 85 per cent who have been in this country ten years or over are affiliated with trade unions. Lithuanians show a considerably higher percentage of their number who are affiliated with trade unions than do Poles, each race showing an increase in percentage according to the length of residence in this country.

CHAPTER V.

HOUSING AND LIVING CONDITIONS.

Rent in its relation to standard of living-Boarders and lodgers-Size of apartments occupied-Size of households studied-Congestion [Text Tables 29 to 41 and General Tables 15 to 26].

RENT IN ITS RELATION TO STANDARD OF LIVING.

The rent payments of the households the heads of which are employed in anthracite coal mines are chiefly significant in their bearing upon standards of living, because of congestion within the households arising from the practice of crowding the apartments in order to reduce the per capita rent. The table first presented in this connection, which immediately follows, shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the average monthly rent paid per apartment, per room, and per person.

TABLE 29.-Average rent per month, by general nativity and race of head of household.

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In 399 households paying rent and reporting the amount it is seen that the average rent per apartment is $7.87, the average rent per room is $1.88, and the average rent per person $1.25. It should be noted that persons native-born of native father pay a very much higher rent per apartment, per room, and per person than do the foreign-born. Of the foreign-born races South Italians show the highest rent per apartment and Slovaks the lowest. Though Ruthenians pay next to the lowest rent per apartment they pay a higher rent per room than do any of the other race groups. South Italians report the highest rent per person and Slovaks the lowest.

The range in monthly rents for apartments is set forth in the following table, which shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the percentage of households paying each specified rent per month per apartment.

TABLE 30.-Per cent of households paying each specified rent per month per apartment, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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The preceding table shows 8.8 per cent of households paying under $5 rent per month per apartment, 45.1 per cent paying under $7.50, and 77.4 per cent paying under $10; over 97 per cent pay under $12.50 rent per month per apartment. Slovaks report a high percentage of households paying under $5 rent per month per apartment when compared with the other races given in the table. All races except the Ruthenian show 100 per cent paying under $20 rent per month per apartment.

The table next presented shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the percentage of households paying each specified rent per month per room.

TABLE 31.-Per cent of households paying each specified rent per month per room, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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