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CHAPTER V.

HOUSING AND LIVING CONDITIONS.

Rent in its relation to standard of living-Boarders and lodgers-Size of apartments

occupied—Size of households studied-Congestion-[Text Tables 29 to 41 and General Tables 15 to 26).

RENT IN ITS RELATION TO STANDARD OF LIVING.

The rent payments of the households the heads of which are employed in anthracite coal mines are chiefly significant in their bearing upon standards of living, because of congestion within the households arising from the practice of crowding the apartments in order to reduce the per capita rent. The table first presented in this connection, which immediately follows, shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the average monthly rent paid per apartment, per room, and per person.

Table 29.-Average rent per month, by general nativity and race of head of household.

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In 399 households paying rent and reporting the amount it is seen that the average rent per apartment is $7.87, the average rent per room is $1.88, and the average rent per person $1.25. It should be noted that persons native-born of native father pay a very much higher rent per apartment, per room, and per person than do the foreign-born. Of the foreign-born races South Italians show the highest rent per apartment and Slovaks the lowest. Though Ruthenians pay next to the lowest rent per apartment they pay a higher rent per room than do any of the other race groups. South Italians report the highest rent per person and Slovaks the lowest.

The range in monthly rents for apartments is set forth in the following table, which shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the percentage of households paying each specified rent per month per apartment. Table 30.- Per cent of households paying each specified rent per month per apartment, by

general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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a Not computed, owing to small number involved. The preceding table shows 8.8 per cent of households paying under $5 rent per month per apartment, 45.1 per cent paying under $7.50, and 77.4 per cent paying under $10; over 97 per cent pay under $12.50 rent per month per apartment. Slovaks report a high percentage of households paying under $5 rent per month per apartment when compared with the other races given in the table. All races except the Ruthenian show 100 per cent paying under $20 rent per month per apartment.

The table next presented shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the percentage of households paying each specified month

per room. TABLE 31.Per cent of households paying each specified rent per month per room, by general

nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

rent per

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Foreign-born:

Lithuanian.
Polish..
Ruthenian.
Slovak.....

Grand total.
Total native-born.
Total foreign-born...

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

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11 388

2. 13
1.87

(a)

2.8

(a)
48.5

(a)
90.5

(a)

99.7

a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

The preceding table shows that 2.8 per cent of households pay under $1 rent per month per room, 48.1 per cent pay under $2, 90.5 per $ cent under $3, and 99.5 per cent under $4. Of the foreign-born races Slovaks alone show a proportion paying under $1 rent per month per room. This race also reports the highest percentage paying under $2. All of the foreign-born races except the Ruthenians report over 95 per cent of households paying under $3 per month per room, the race referred to reporting only 74.2 per cent paying under this amount. All races given in the table show 100 per cent paying under $4 rent per month per room.

The real situation relative to congestion is set forth in the following table, which indicates the extent of crowding within the households studied, by showing according to general nativity and race of head of household, the percentage of households paying each specified rent per month per person. TABLE 32.-Per cent of households paying each specified rent per month per person, by

general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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a Not computed, owing to small number involved. The preceding table shows 23.6 per cent of households paying under $1 rent per month per person, 81 per cent pay under $2, 95.2 per cent under $3, and 99 per cent pay under $4 rent per month

per person. Slovaks report a very high percentage of households paying under $1 per month per person and Lithuanians comparatively small proportions paying under this amount. Slovaks also show considerably over 90 per cent of households paying under $2 per month per person, other races showing very much lower proportions. All of the races except the Poles show over 95 per cent paying under $3, this race showing 94 per cent.

BOARDERS AND LODGERS. The practice of the wives of the mine workers in supplementing the earnings of their husbands by taking boarders or lodgers into the home has already been discussed. The extent of this practice and its bearing upon living conditions are considered in the two following tables, the first of which exhibits the number and per cent of households keeping boarders or lodgers, by general nativity and race of head of household.

Table 33.— Number and per cent of households keeping boarders or lodgers, by general

nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [Information relating to boarders or lodgers covers only immediate time of taking schedule and not the

entire year. Boarders are persons who receive both board and lodging.)

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Of the total number of households, 41.3 per cent keep boarders or lodgers. Of the races represented by 20 or more households, the Lithuanians show the highest percentage keeping boarders or lodgers, followed in the order named by Polish, Slovak, and Ruthenian.

In the following table the average number of boarders or lodgers per household is shown according to general nativity and race of head of household. The averages are based (1) on the total number of households and (2) on the number of households taking boarders or lodgers.

TABLE 34.- Average number of boarders of lodgers per household, by general nativity and

race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) Information relating to boarders or lodgers covers only immediate time of taking schedule and not the

entire year.

Boarders are persons.who receive both board and lodging.)

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Native-born of native father, White...
Foreign-born:

Italian, South.
Lithuanian.
Polish.
Ruthenian.
Slovak...

Grand total.

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455

188

491

1.08

2.61

Total native-born.
Total foreign-born..

16
439

1 187

3 488

.19 1.11

(a)

2.61

a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

The preceding table shows the average number of boarders or lodgers per household to be 108 per 100 households, as based on the total number of households; the average number, when based on the number of households keeping boarders or lodgers, is 261 per 100 households. Foreign-born report a very much higher average

a number of boarders or lodgers per household than do persons nativeborn of native father. Of the foreign-born races, South Italians report the highest average number of boarders or lodgers when based on the number of households. When computation is based on the total number of households keeping boarders or lodgers, Poles show a considerably higher average number of boarders or lodgers than the other races.

SIZE OF APARTMENTS OCCUPIED.

The range in the size of apartments occupied by the households is indicated in the following table, which shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the percentage of households occupying apartments of each specified number of rooms.

TABLE 35.- Per cent of households occupying apartments of each specified number of rooms, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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The foregoing table shows that 49.2 per cent of the households occupy apartments of four and five rooms. The percentage of households occupying apartments of seven or more rooms is very small and the proportion in apartments of one room is insignificant. Ruthenians show a considerably higher percentage than the other races occupying apartments of two rooms, and also show the highest percentage of households occupying apartments of three rooms, Slovaks showing the highest percentage in apartments of four rooms, and Poles the highest percentage in apartments of five rooms. Lithuanians show a larger proportion of households in apartments of six rooms than the other races, and Slovaks the smallest percentage in apartments of this size. Lithuanians show no households in apartments of seven or more rooms, the other races showing only small proportions.

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