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RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF DIFFERENT SOURCES OF FAMILY INCOME.

The following table shows, by general nativity and race of head of family, the percentage of the total yearly income of the households studied derived from husband, wife, children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources:

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Table 25.--Per cent of total family income within the year from husband, uise,

children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources, by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.

This table exeludes 2 families reporting income as “none.''}

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A total of 459 families were selected for study in the foregoing table. For that number of families 69.4 per cent of the total yearly income is derived from earnings of the husband, 17.9 per cent from contributions of children and 9.9 per cent from payments of boarders or lodgers. The percentage of family income that is derived from earnings of wife is less than 0.05 per cent. Of the Slovak families slightly more than 70 per cent of the family income is derived from earnings of husband, while 20.2 per cent of the income is from the contributions of children. The Lithuanians, Poles, and Ruthenians each show between 65 and 70 per cent of their family incomes to be derived from earnings of husband. The Ruthenians show the smallest per cent of income from payments of boarders or lodgers and the largest income from sources not specified.

CHAPTER IV.

WORKING CONDITIONS.

Regularity of employment—The immigrant and organized labor—[Text Tables 26 to 28

and General Table 14].

REGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT.

The regularity of work offered by the industry, as well as the relative efficiency of the several races and nativity groups, is set forth in the following table, which shows the months worked during the past year by males in the households studied who were 16 years of age or over and who were employed away from home.

TABLE 26.- Months worked during the past year by males 16 years of age or over employed

away from home, by general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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From information secured from 1,011 males it was learned that 9 per cent worked twelve months, 76.1 per cent worked 9 months or over, 96.4 per cent worked six months or over, and 99.3 per cent worked three months or over during the past year. Native-born of foreign father report a higher percentage of males who worked twelve months and nine months or over than do the foreign-born, while foreign-born show a higher percentage who worked six months or over or three months or over than do the native-born of foreign father. Among the native-born of foreign father, the Slovaks show a higher percentage of persons who worked for each specified period of time than is shown by the Poles. Among the foreign-born races the Slo

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vaks show a rather high percentage of persons who worked twelve months when compared with the percentages of persons belonging to other races who worked for this period of time. The table further shows that the greatest proportion of males of all races shown in the table worked nine months or over.

THE IMMIGRANT AND ORGANIZED LABOR.

The extent to which the mine workers are members of labor organizations is exhibited by the table next presented. It shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the affiliation with trade unions of males in the households studied who were 21 years of age or over and who were working for wages.

Table 27.-Afiliation with trade unions of males 21 years of age or over who are working

for wages, by general nativity and race of individual.

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The preceding table shows that slightly over 75 per cent of the total number of males reporting are affiliated with trade unions. The foreign-born group shows 77.5 per cent, as compared with 25.8 per cent of native-born who are affiliated with trade unions. Lithuanians show the highest percentage of persons who belong to unions, followed by Slovaks, Ruthenians, Poles, and South Italians in the order named.

The tendency of employees to become identified with labor organizations after designated periods of residence in this country is exhibited by the following table, which shows, by years in the United States and race of individual, the affiliation with trade unions of foreign-born males in the households studied who were 21 years of age or over and who were working for wages:

TABLE 28.-Afiliation with trade unions of foreign-born males 21 years of age or over who are working for wages, by years in the United States and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 200 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

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The preceding table shows that 65.4 per cent of males who have been in the United States under five years are affiliated with trade unions, 82.1 per cent with a residence of from five to nine years belong to unions, and 85 per cent who have been in this country ten years or over are affiliated with trade unions. Lithuanians show a considerably higher percentage of their number who are affiliated with trade unions than do Poles, each race showing an increase in percentage according to the length of residence in this country.

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