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Of 6,536 males employed in this industry, 61.7 per cent are married; 36.6 per cent are single, and 1.7 per cent widowed. The nativeborn of native father show a larger proportion than the foreign-born, who in turn show a larger proportion than the native born of foreign father, who are married. The position of the nativity groups is reversed as regards those who are single, as the proportion of each group who are widowed is approximately the same. A comparison between the age groups shows that the proportion of single persons decreases, and the proportion of married persons, as well as the pro portion who are widowed, increases with age. This is true also o each nativity group except the native-born of native father, whic varies only in that a slightly larger proportion of those who are from 30 to 40 years of age, than of those who are 45 years of age or ove are married. The same remarks apply to each foreign-born ra except the Croatian and Magyar, which vary in the same respect does the native-born of native father.
In the table next presented the percentage of persons in the hous holds studied in each conjugal condition is shown by sex, age grou and by general nativity and race of individual.
TABLE 53.-Per cent of persons in each conjugal condition, by sex and age groups, and by general nativity and race of individual.
(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)
[This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]
Of 1,251 persons 20 years of age or over included in the foregoing table, 79.5 per cent are married, 18.5 per cent single, and 2 per cent widowed. The foreign-born show a decidedly larger proportion married than single, while the reverse is true in regard to the nativeborn of foreign father-less than 5 per cent of either being widowed.
Of the foreign-born races, the proportion of each who are married ranges from 96 per cent of the Croatian to 69.1 per cent of the English. The same races reversed show the largest and smallest proportion who are single. A comparison between the total within each age group shows that a larger proportion of those who are from 30 to 44 years of age than of either of those who are from 20 to 29 years of age or 45 years of age or over are married. The proportion who are single decreases. The English is the only race showing a larger proportion of those who are from 20 to 29 years of age single than married. The proportion of each race who are single decreases and the proportion who are married increases as between the groups from 20 to 29 years of age and the from 30 to 44 years of age groups, while the proportion of each race except the Polish who are married either remains the same or decreases as between the form 30 to 44 years of age and the 45 years of age or over groups. A comparison between the total number of males and females who are 20 years of age or over shows that a larger proportion of the former than the latter are single, and consequently a smaller proportion married, as the proportion who are single is very small. The same comparison applies to each nativity group and each race. Comparing the total number of males and females of each specified age, it is seen that a larger proportion of the former than of the latter who are from 20 to 29 years of age are single, consequently a smaller proportion married, as the proportion who are widowed is less than 1 per cent of each. Little difference is shown between the proportions of those who are from 30 to 44 years of age and those who are 45 years of age or over.
While a large proportion of the foreign-born male employees were married, it is a significant fact, in connection with their conjugal condition, that a considerable number left their wives abroad upon emigrating to this country. This condition of affairs is disclosed by the following table, which shows, by race of husband, the percentage of foreign-born husbands who report wife in the United States and the percentage who report wife abroad:
TABLE 54.—Per cent of foreign-born husbands who report wife in the United States and per cent who report wife abroad, by race of husband.
(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)
[This table includes only races with 40 or more husbands reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign
Of the 2,665 foreign-born husbands reporting from the total coppermining industry, 74.1 per cent have wives in this country. Of the total number 25.9 per cent report wife abroad. The Canadians, Germans, and Swedes each report over 95 per cent of the husbands as having wives in this country. The English and Finnish husbands, of whom between 80 and 84 per cent report wives in this country, show the next largest proportions. The Poles, South Italians, Slovenians, and North Italians follow in the order named. The Magyars and Croatians each show less than 40 per cent of the husbands as having wives in this country. From the above it will be seen that the races of newer immigration, for example, the Magyars, Croatians, and North and South Italians, show a larger proportion of married men whose wives are abroad than do the races of older immigration, such as the English, Swedish, Canadians, and Germans.
The tendency on the part of husbands of foreign birth who came to this country without their wives to send for them after specified periods of residence may be seen from the table next presented. This table shows, by race of husband and by years husband has been in the United States, the per cent of foreign-born husbands who report wife abroad:
TABLE 55.-Per cent of foreign-born husbands who report wife abroad, by race of husband and by years husband has been in the United States.
(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)
[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes only races with 100 or more husbands reporting.]
Of the foreign-born husbands from whom information was secured, whose residence in this country has been for less than five years, the Croatians show the largest proportion who report wife abroad. It is 88.6 per cent. The second rank is held by the North Italians, 70.5 per cent. Of the English and Finnish the proportion is between 50 and 54 per cent. Of those whose residence in the United States has been from five to nine years, 47.5 per cent of the Croatians report wife abroad. The North Italians show the next largest. The North Italians show the largest proportion of husbands whose wives are abroad in the period of ten or more years of residence in this country. The Croatians show the next largest proportion, while the French Canadians, English, and Finnish each show less than 5 per cent. Excepting the French Canadian, each race shows a decrease in the proportion of husbands reporting wife abroad as the period of residence in the United States increases.
The extent to which employees of foreign birth return to their native countries for long or short periods is indicated by the following table, which shows, by years in the United States and race, the visits abroad made by foreign-born male employees:
TABLE 56.- Visits abroad made by foreign-born male employees, by years in the United States and race.
(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)
[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes only races with 100 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]
Of the total number of foreign-born male employees 22.7 per cent report one or more visits abroad. The most marked tendency to visit abroad is shown by the French Canadians, over 50 per cent of whom have made at least one visit. The Germans report only 5.5 per cent who have visited abroad, the smallest proportion of any of the specified races. A considerably smaller proportion of the employees who have been in the United States less than five years report one or more visits abroad than of the groups of employees who have been here five to nine years or ten years or over. Further, with one exception, each specified race reports the smallest proportion who have visited abroad in the group who have been in this country under five years.
AGE CLASSIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES AND MEMBERS OF THEIR HOUSE
The age characteristics of the copper-mining employees may be seen from the table next presented, which shows, according to sex and general nativity and race of head of household, the percentage of persons within each specified age group.