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While there was little difference in the time of employment of the Irish, Scotch, and Germans, the employment of the Irish was more conspicuous because of their greater numbers. In the early seventies the Poles, Lithuanians, Slovaks, and representatives of other European races obtained employment as unskilled laborers in and around this colliery. Although the largest proportion of the more recent immigrants have obtained employment in this colliery within the last fifteen years, they have steadily increased in numbers since first they were employed. The Ruthenians also were employed in the early seventies, but have not advanced as have the representatives of the other races previously mentioned. At the present time the general occupations and the races employed therein may be briefly stated, as follows:

Managers and superintendents, Welsh; foremen and bosses, Irish; contract miners, Poles and Lithuanians; inside laborers, Slovaks, and more recent Poles and Lithuanians, and outside laborers, Slovaks, Ruthenians, and Italians.

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PERIOD OF RESIDENCE IN THE UNITED STATES OF MEMBERS OF IMMI

GRANT HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

An insight into the racial movements to the industry is afforded by the following table, which shows, by race of individual, the percentage of foreign-born persons in the households studied who had been in the United States each specified number of years.

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TABLE 7.-Per cent of foreign-born persons in the United States each specified number of

years, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. No deduction is

made for time spent abroad. This table includes only races with 20 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

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Of the 1,521 persons in the above table, 32.1 per cent have been in the United States under five years; 23.1 per cent have been here from five to ten years; 29.8 per cent from ten to twenty years; and 15 per cent twenty years or over.

The South Italians show the largest proportion of persons and the Slovaks the smallest proportion of persons who have been in the United States under five years. Only 3.7 per cent of the South Italians have lived in the United States for more than twenty years as compared with slightly more than 20 per cent of the Ruthenians, who have lived in the United States more than twenty years, and 19.6 per cent of the Slovaks.

CHAPTER III.

ECONOMIC STATUS.

Industrial condition abroad of members of immigrant households studied-General

occupation of males at the present time in the households studied-General occupation of women at the present time in the households studied-Occupations entered in the industry—The wage scale-Annual earnings of male heads of families studied-Annual earnings of males 18 years of age or over in the households studied-Annual earnings of females 18 years of age or over in the households studied-Annual family income-Wives at work-Relation between the earnings of husbands and the practice of wives of keeping boarders or lodgers-Sources of family income-Relative importance of different sources of family income—[Text Tables 8 to 25 and General Tables 4 to 13).

INDUSTRIAL CONDITION ABROAD OF MEMBERS OF IMMIGRANT HOUSE

HOLDS STUDIED.

Preliminary to the discussion of economic status in this country of the persons in the households studied in this community, the industrial condition and principal occupations of immigrant workers and members of their households while abroad are set forth. The first table presented in this connection shows, by race of individual, the industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreignborn males in the households studied who were 16 years of age or over at the time of coming to this country:

TABLE 8.Industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born males

who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

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The above table shows that 49.9 per cent of males reporting complete data were working without wages before coming to the United States, 30.3 per cent were working for wages, 16.6 per cent were working for profit, and 3.2 per cent were without occupation. Lithuanians show the highest percentage of persons who were working for wages before coming to this country, Poles, South Italians, Ruthenians, and Slovaks showing between 20 and 30 per cent thus engaged. Slovaks and Ruthenians show between 50 and 60 per cent, Lithuanians and Poles between 40 and 50 per cent, and South Italians slightly over 20 per cent who were working without wages, South Italians report a very much higher proportion who worked for profit than any of the other races, while Slovaks and Poles show the highest percentage who were without occupation before coming to the United States.

The following table shows, by race of individual, the occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born males in the households studied who were 16 years of age or over at time of arrival:

Table 9.- Occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born males who

were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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The foregoing table shows that the greatest proportion of males who were 16 years of age or over at the time of coming to the United States and who were working for wages were farm laborers before coming to this country. Only small proportions were in other specified occupations and none had any previous experience in coal mining. All of those working without wages were farm laborers, and practically all of those working for profit were farmers. Lithuanians show the highest percentage who were farm laborers for wages, while Slovaks show the highest percentage who were farm laborers working without wages. Slovaks, closely followed by Poles, show the highest percentage who were without occupation before coming to the United States.

The table next presented shows, by race of individual, the industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born females in the households studied who were 16 years of age or over at the time of their arrival.

TABLE 10.-Industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born

females who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (This table includes only races with 20 or more females reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign

born.)

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The above table shows that 49.9 per cent of all females were without occupation before coming to the United States, 23.7 per cent worked for wages, and 26 per cent worked without wages, while only 0.5 per cent worked for profit. Lithuanians and Poles report a very much higher percentage who were without occupation than Ruthenians and Slovaks, the last named race showing a higher percentage than the other races who were working for wages, while Ruthenians show the highest percentage of females working without wages before coming to this country. No Polish or Slovak females worked for profit before coming to the United States.

The following table shows, by race of individual, the occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born females, in the households studied, who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming to this country.

Table 11.-Occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born females who

were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more females reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign

born.)

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Of the several races, Lithuanians show the highest percentage of females who were working as farm laborers for wages. Ruthenians show the highest percentage of females who were working without

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