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The table next submitted sets forth, by sex and general nativity and race of individual, the persons in the households studied for whom detailed information was secured.
TABLE 6.-Persons for whom detailed information was secured, by sex and general nativity and race of individual.
The preceding table shows that of the total number of persons for whom information was secured, 52.9 per cent were foreign-born, 44.9 per cent were native-born of foreign father, and 2.2 per cent were native-born of native father. The foreign-born report nearly twice as many males as females.
PREPARATION OF THE REPORT.
In preparing the report for publication it has been divided into two parts, as follows:
Part I. General Survey of the Anthracite Coal Mining Industry. Part II. The Anthracite Coal Mining Industry in a Representative Community.
Part I is statistical and is based upon the data obtained from a study of households the heads of which were employed in the anthracite coal mines. Part II is mainly descriptive, and has been prepared for the purpose of setting forth the working and living conditions which prevail in a representative anthracite coal mining locality, in which immigrants of recent and past years have been and now are employed.
History of immigration-Period of residence in the United States of members of immigrant households studied-[Text Table 7 and General Table 3].
HISTORY OF IMMIGRATION.
The racial movements to the industry during recent and past years may be best illustrated by setting forth the history of immigration to a number of representative collieries and washeries. These are designated by numerals in order to avoid mentioning the names of the companies.
COLLIERY No. 1.
Upon beginning operations at these collieries, the first employees were Cornishmen, English, and Scotch, who were succeeded shortly afterwards by the Irish and a few Germans. The representatives of these races constituted the entire force until 1875 or 1876, when the first of the more recent immigrants, the Poles, were employed. They were quickly followed by Lithuanians. Immigration to these collieries did not rest with the arrival of the Poles and Lithuanians, for it was only a little later on that the Slovaks, Ruthenians, Syrians, and Italians obtained their first employment. The representatives of these races, together with a small number of each of several other races, constitute the present force of employees. As larger numbers of more recent immigrants were employed the hostility toward them on the part of the older employees became more marked. This and the additional fact that the more recent immigrants would contract for a lesser amount than the older employees led to the gradual displacement of the older employees.
COLLIERY No. 2.
The first employees of these collieries, which were opened in 1860, were principally Germans who lived in the vicinity. The experienced English, Irish, Scotch, and Welsh miners who obtained employment immediately after operations were begun came from other localities. It was not until the latter part of the second decade after these collieries were opened that the more recent immigrants obtained their first employment. The first to be employed were the Lithuanians, who were shortly followed by the Poles. In the late eighties, or the latter part of that decade in which the Poles were employed, and in the early part of the succeeding decade the Ruthenians and Slovaks obtained employment at these mines. Some little while afterwards the Italians immigrated to this locality, but because of not being considered suited
for inside work they have never become an important factor in the operation of these mines. The employment of the more recent immigrants was due to the growing demand for additional labor, which demand it was not possible for the English-speaking races to supply. There has been no displacement of any particular race or races as the result of the employment of those races which have more recently immigrated to the United States.
COLLIERY No. 3.
This colliery was opened in 1860, and its first employees were Germans, who left their farms to become miners. It was not long, however, before the larger part of the force was composed of the English, Irish, Scotch, and Welsh, who for the most part acquired their experience in the mining of coal prior to their arrival in the United States. This, then, was the labor almost exclusively employed for a period of twenty years, or until 1880, when the Lithuanians and Poles settled in this locality and obtained employment at this colliery. In 1890 the racial complexion of the working force became more diversified by the employment of the Ruthenians and Slovaks, and in 1900 the Italians sought and obtained their first employment. As these more recent immigrants increased in numbers, the English, Germans, Irish, Scotch, and Welsh decreased, until at present the majority of the employees are those who have more recently immigrated to this country. About the time the first of the more recent immigrants were employed immigration from northern Europe had almost ceased. This, together with the expansion of the industry, made the employment of the more recent immigrants a necessity.
COLLIERY No. 4.
The first employees at these collieries were Germans, who left their farms when the collieries were opened in 1860. From 1860 until 1877 the English, Irish, Scotch, and Welsh miners from nearby coal fields, together with the Germans, were almost exclusively employed. About this latter date the Lithuanians and Poles obtained their first employment, followed ten years later by the Ruthenians and Slovaks. No further material change occurred in the racial composition of the force at these collieries until 1890, when the Italians were employed. In 1877 or a little later, when the Lithuanians and Poles were first employed, the English-speaking employees began to leave the mines. Their leaving, however, like the coming of the non-English-speaking employees, was gradual. The employment of the first of the more recent immigrants was largely due to the expansion of the industry made necessary by the increased demand for coal.
COLLIERY No. 5.
The first employees of this colliery, in 1868, were the Welsh. As new collieries were opened and the demand for additional laborers increased, the Welsh in the colliery were advanced to the more responsible positions, and the Irish, who were first employed in the unskilled positions, became the skilled contract miners, while their positions in the less skilled occupations were filled by the Germans and Scotch.
While there was little difference in the time of employment of the Irish, Scotch, and Germans, the employment of the Irish was more conspicuous because of their greater numbers. In the early seventies the Poles, Lithuanians, Slovaks, and representatives of other European races obtained employment as unskilled laborers in and around this colliery. Although the largest proportion of the more recent immigrants have obtained employment in this colliery within the last fifteen years, they have steadily increased in numbers since first they were employed. The Ruthenians also were employed in the early seventies, but have not advanced as have the representatives of the other races previously mentioned. At the present time the general occupations and the races employed therein may be briefly stated, as follows:
Managers and superintendents, Welsh; foremen and bosses, Irish; contract miners, Poles and Lithuanians; inside laborers, Slovaks, and more recent Poles and Lithuanians, and outside laborers, Slovaks, Ruthenians, and Italians.
PERIOD OF RESIDENCE IN THE UNITED STATES OF MEMBERS OF IMMIGRANT HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.
An insight into the racial movements to the industry is afforded by the following table, which shows, by race of individual, the percentage of foreign-born persons in the households studied who had been in the United States each specified number of years.
TABLE 7.-Per cent of foreign-born persons in the United States each specified number of years, by race of individual.
(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)
[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. No deduction is made for time spent abroad. This table includes only races with 20 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]
Of the 1,521 persons in the above table, 32.1 per cent have been in the United States under five years; 23.1 per cent have been here from five to ten years; 29.8 per cent from ten to twenty years; and 15 per cent twenty years or over. The South Italians show the largest proportion of persons and the Slovaks the smallest proportion of persons who have been in the United States under five years. Only 3.7 per cent of the South Italians have lived in the United States for more than twenty years as compared with slightly more than 20 per cent of the Ruthenians, who have lived in the United States more than twenty years, and 19.6 per cent of the Slovaks.