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CHAPTER VI.

SALIENT CHARACTERISTICS.

Literacy-Conjugal condition-Visits abroad-Age classification of employees and members of their households-[Text Tables 47 to 58 and General Tables 32 to 41].

LITERACY.

As regards the literacy of the employees of the copper-mining industry, the series of tables submitted below sets forth not only the degree. of literacy which prevails among them at the present time, but the elements of progress evidenced by the foreign-born employees after their arrival in this country. The first table presented in this connection shows, by general nativity and race, the per cent of male employees who were able to read and per cent who were able to both read and write.

TABLE 47.-Per cent of male employees who read and per cent who read and write, by general nativity and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only races with 40 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Of a total of 7,045 male employees in the copper-mining industry 94 per cent can read and a somewhat smaller proportion, or 92.4 per cent, can both read and write. The proportions shown by the foreignborn are practically the same as those for the total in both instances, and are somewhat smaller than those shown by the native-born of foreign father and larger than those shown by the native white born of native father. Of the foreign-born races the Norwegian alone shows 100 per cent who can both read and write, and the greater number of other races show more than 90 per cent who can read and both read and write. The French Canadians show the lowest proportion in both groups. In most instances a slightly larger proportion can read than can both read and write. Generally speaking the nativeborn of foreign father show a greater proportion who are literate than the corresponding foreign-born races.

The following table shows, by sex and general nativity and race of individual, the percentage of persons 10 years of age or over in the households studied who read and the percentage who both read and

write:

TABLE 48.-Per cent of persons 10 years of age or over, who read and per cent who read and write, by sex and general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 40 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

Number reporting com-
plete data.

Per cent who read.

Per cent who read and write.

General nativity and race of

individual.

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Male. Female. Total. Male. Female. Total. Male. Female. Total.

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English..

89.1 89.7 90.2

78.2

84.5

87

98.4

100.0

98.9 98.4

96.0

97.7

Finnish.

109

206

99. 1

100.0

99.5

99.1

96.9

98.1

Irish..

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Italian, North.

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Magyar...

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68 91.4
100.0
89.6

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Equal proportions of the total number of males and females read, 96.5 per cent of the males and 96.1 of the females read and write. Among the native-born of native father 100 per cent of both males. and females read and write. Among the native-born of foreign father and the foreign-born a slightly larger proportion of males are literate, but the difference between the literacy of the sexes is very little. Among the specified races, however, there is greater variation in the literacy of the sexes. Among the French Canadians, North Italians, and Polish the proportion of males who read and write is somewhat smaller than the corresponding proportion of females. In addition to these races the English and Finns show a slightly smaller proportion of males who read than of females. The most marked difference in the literacy of males and females is among the French Canadians, Croatians, Magyars, and Irish: The French Canadians have a predominance of females who read and who read and write, the Irish, Croatians, and Magyars have a greater proportion of males who are literate. Both the Irish and French Canadians, it will be noted, have relatively smaller proportions who read and who read and write as compared with the total foreign-born group.

The relation between literacy and period of residence in this country is indicated by the following table. The table shows, by years in the United States and race of individual, the per cent of foreign-born persons 10 years of age or over who read, and the per cent who read and write.

TABLE 49.-Per cent of foreign-born persons 10 years of age or over who read and per cent who read and write, by years in the United States and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes only races with 40 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.}

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Of the total number of foreign-born persons 10 years of age or over, the smallest proportion who are literate is in the group who have been in the United States ten years or over, the largest proportion in the group who have been here from five to nine years. There is not, however, any considerable difference between the proportions who are literate in any group. Moreover, among the specified races, there

does not seem to be any relation between years in the United States and the proportion who read or read and write.

The progress made by the younger immigrants, as compared with the older immigrants, is shown by the following table. This table indicates, according to age at time of coming to the United States and race of individual, the percentage of persons 10 years of age or over, in the households studied, who read, and the percentage who read and write.

TABLE 50.-Per cent of foreign-born persons 10 years of age or over who read and per cent who read and write, by age at time of coming to the United States and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 40 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign

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Of the groups of foreign-born persons 10 years of age or over, who were under 14 when they came to the United States, 97.5 per cent can read; of the group who were 14 or over, 94.1 per cent can read. Similarly the greater proportion able to read and write is in the group who were under 14 at time of coming to this country. This is also characteristic of every specified race, except the Finns. The latter have the greater proportion who are literate in the group who were 14 or over at time of coming. Usually a race shows a relatively small proportion able to read and to read and write in each group, or a relatively large proportion in each group. The Irish, however, have 100 per cent in the under 14 group who read and only 72.7 per cent in the 14 or over group; the latter proportion being the smallest percentage shown for any race, except the 71.9 per cent of the Canadian French.

CONJUGAL CONDITION.

The table next presented shows, by general nativity and race, the percentage of male employees 20 years of age or over, who were in each conjugal condition.

TABLE 51.-Per cent of male employees 20 years of age or over in each conjugal condition, by general nativity and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only races with 40 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Of the total number of male employees 20 years of age or over 61.7 per cent are married, 36.6 per cent are single, and 1.7 per cent are widowed. The greater proportion of each class of male employees are married, ranging from 56.1 per cent of the native-born of foreign father, to 70.4 per cent of the native whites born of native father. Of the group native-born of foreign father the male employees whose fathers were born in Ireland are the only race of which the greater proportion are reported single. Of the foreign-born the Irish report the smallest proportion single; 66.7 per cent of that race being married and 23.8 per cent widowed. The proportion of widowed among the Irish is not closely approached by any race, the second largest proportion being 4.9 per cent reported by the French Canadians. The greater proportion of every race, it will be noted, is reported married; among the French Canadians and Norwegians it reaches over 80 per

cent.

The table next submitted divides the totals of the one preceding and shows the percentage of male employees in each conjugal condition, by age groups and by general nativity and race.

48296°-VOL 16-11- -5

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