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The average number of persons per apartment, per room, and per sleeping room is 5.93, 1.28, and 2.57, respectively, for 504 households studied. The number of persons per apartment, room, and sleeping room is considerably higher in the households, the heads of which are foreign-born than in those the heads of which are native-born of native father. Comparing the different households, the heads of which are foreign-born, it is seen that in every instance there are fewer persons per room and per sleeping room among the older immigrant races or the Swedish, Irish, Norwegian, English, German, and French Canadian, than among the more recent immigrant races.
The table next presented shows the range in the number of persons per room, by general nativity and race of head of household:
TABLE 44.- Persons per room, by general nativity and race of head of household.
Of the total number of households, 75.8 per cent have 1 or more persons per room, 17.5 per cent have 2 or more, and relatively small proportions have 3 or more or 4 or more persons per room.
These figures for the total number of households closely reflect the persons per room in foreign-born households, all but 11 of the 504 being of that class. No race shows the greater proportion of households having less than 1 person per room. The smallest degree of crowding is among the English, Norwegians, and Swedish. Of the Magyars, 43.3 per cent have 3 or more persons per room; 73.3 per cent have 2 or more. The remaining races in the greater proportion of cases have less than 2 persons per room.
The range in number of persons per sleeping room is shown in the following table, according to general nativity and race of head of household:
TABLE 45.—Persons per sleeping room, by general nativity and race of head of household.
Of the total number of households, 80.8 per cent, all but 11 being of the foreign-born group have 2 or more persons per sleeping room; 43.3 per cent have 3 or more persons per sleeping room. Decreasing proportions of households have larger numbers of persons per sleeping room, 3.2 per cent having 6 or more. The Swedes are the only race group that shows the smaller proportion of their households having 2 or more persons per sleeping room. The Irish and English, however, also have a comparatively small degree of crowding in their sleeping room, none of the households of either race having 4 or more persons per sleeping room. The Magyars, on the other hand, show the largest proportion of households having each specified number of persons per sleeping room, 100 per cent have 2 or more, 10 per cent having 6 or more. In fact, the degree of crowding in the sleeping rooms of the Magyars far outreaches that of any other specified race.
In the table following, which is the final table of the series, the effect of congestion within the household upon sleeping and living arrangements is set forth. The table shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the number and percentage of households regularly using for sleeping purposes all except each specified number of rooms.
TABLE 46.- Number and per cent of households regularly sleeping in all except each
specified number of rooms, by general nativity and race of head of household.
Of the total number of households, 0.2 per cent regularly use all rooms for sleeping, 22.2 per cent all rooms except 1, and 37.9 per cent all rooms except 2. These figures closely represent the proportions of the foreign-born households, all but 11 of the total 504, being of that class. Of the Magyar households, 3.3 per cent use all rooms for sleeping purposes, 50 per cent all except i room, and 46.7 per cent all except 2 rooms. The Croatians and North Italians also show a relatively large proportion sleeping in all rooms except 1 and all rooms except 2, as compared with the total foreign-born group: The Norwegians show the most marked tendency to have more than 2 rooms in which they do not regularly sleep. Only 11.5 per cent of the households of that race use all rooms except 2 and none use all rooms or all rooms except 1.
Literacy-Conjugal condition-Visits abroad-Age classification of employees and
members of their households [Text Tables 47 to 58 and General Tables 32 to 41].
As regards the literacy of the employees of the copper-mining industry, the series of tables submitted below sets forth not only the degree of literacy which prevails among them at the present time, but
the elements of progress evidenced by the foreign-born employees after their arrival in this country. The first table presented in this connection shows, by general nativity and race, the per cent of male employees who were able to read and per cent who were able to both read and write.
TABLE 47.-Per cent of male employees who read and per cent who read and write, by
general nativity and race.
(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (This table includes only races with 40 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]
Native-born of native father, White.
824 1,510 126
75.3 98.7 82. 1 98.7 99.5 98.4 85.7 94. 2 89.5 92.8 100.0 87.5 98.7 98. 2
70.5 98.7 80.9 98.3 96.8 98. 4 81.0 94. 1 84.2 92.8 100.0 84.7 98.7 98. 2
72 156 110