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The preceding table shows that 98.1 per cent of the 310 households

pay under $4 a month rent for each person. Large proportions pay under $3 and under $2, while 30.3 per cent pay under $1.

The Croatians pay notably higher rent than any other race included in the table, and the French Canadians the lowest.

BOARDERS AND LODGERS.

The practice of housewives in keeping boarders or lodgers in order to supplement the earnings of their husbands has already been studied. The extent of the practice and its bearing upon the living conditions are considered in the present connection. The table which follows exhibits the number and percentage of households keeping boarders or lodgers, according to general nativity and race of head of household.

Table 38.-Number and per cent of households keeping boarders or lodgers, by general

nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [Information relating to boarders or lodgers covers only immediate time of taking schedule and not the

entire year. Boarders are persons who receive both board and lodging.)

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Of the total number of foreign-born households 17.8 per cent keep boarders or lodgers. There is, however, a very wide variation in the number and per cent of the households of each race who keep boarders or lodgers. They are found in 83.3 per cent of the Magyar households; in 60 per cent of the English households. In a lesser degree they are relatively common among Croatians and Slovenians. On the other hand, there are no boarders or lodgers among the Irish, German, or Swedish households and only a relatively small proportion, compared with the total, in households of the remaining races.

The table next submitted shows the average number of boarders or lodgers per household, by general nativity and race of head of household. The averages are based, first, on the total number of households and, second, on the number of households having boarders or lodgers.

TABLE 39.— Average number of boarders or lodgers per household, by general nativity and

race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) llaformation relating to boarders or lodgers covers only immediate time of taking schedule and not the

entire year. Boarders are persons who receive both board and lodging.)

Average number of

boarders or lodgers per household

Number of General nativity and race of head of house

Total households Number of number of keeping

boarders or hold.

households. boarders or lodgers.

lodgers.

Based on Based on

number of total households number of keeping households. boarders

or lodgers.

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The total number of households averages .79 boarders or lodgers per household; the total number of households keeping boarders or lodgers averages 4.49 boarders or lodgers to each household. These figures closely reflect the average number of boarders or lodgers in foreign-born households, all but 11 of the total 504 households being of that class. There is, however, a considerable difference in the extent to which boarders or lodgers are kept by the households of the specified races. The Germans, Irish, and Swedish have no boarders or lodgers. The Magyars, on the contrary, average 6.03, based on the total number of households of that race, and average 7.24, based on the households of that race keeping boarders or lodgers.

SIZE OF APARTMENTS OCCUPIED,

The range in the size of apartments occupied by the households studied is set forth in the table next presented, which shows by general nativity and race of head of household the percentage of households occupying apartments of each specified number of rooms.

Table 40.—Per cent of households occupying apartments of each specified number of rooms, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting. The totals, however, are for all

races.)

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a Not computed, owing to small number involved. The preceding table shows that 8.5 per cent of 504 households concerning which information was secured, occupy apartments of 2 rooms, 20.8 per cent occupy apartments of 3 rooms, 18.5 per cent apartments of 4 rooms, 23 per cent apartments of 5 rooms, 19.2 per cent apartments of 6 rooms, and 9.9 per cent apartments of 7 or more rooms. Households the heads of which are of foreign birth show a slightly higher per cent occupying apartments of 2, 3, and 4 rooms than is shown in the totals for all households studied. The per cent of households the heads of which are foreign-born show a slightly smaller per cent occupying apartments of 5, 6, or 7 or more rooms than that shown in the total. Of households the heads of which are of foreign birth those whose heads are Finns show a higher per cent in apartments of 2 rooms than is exhibited by households the heads of which are of other foreign-born races. No households the heads of which are French Canadians, English, Norwegians, Poles, or Swedes occupy apartments of this size. Households the heads of which are North Italians show by far the highest per cent occupying apartments of 3 rooms, while no households the heads of which are Irish, Swedes, or French Canadians, are in apartments of this number of rooms. The households the heads of which are Croatians show the highest per cent, in apartments of 4 rooms, no households the heads of which are Irish occupying apartments of this size. Households the heads of which are Poles show the highest per cent and households the heads of which are Finns the lowest per cent occupying apartments of 5 rooms. The households the heads of which are English show the highest per cent and the households the heads of which were North Italians the lowest per cent occupying apartments of 6 rooms, and households the heads of which are Swedes the highest per cent in apartments of 7 or more rooms, while no households the heads of which are English or Magyars occupy apartments of this size

SIZE OF HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

The table following exhibits the range in the size of households studied. It shows the percentage of households of each specified number of persons, by general nativity and race of head of household.

TABLE 41.-Per cent of households of each specified number of persons, by general nativity

and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) {This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Of the total number of households 14.3 per cent are composed of 3 persons; an equally large proportion have 5 persons. Households of 4, 6, 7, and 10 or more persons are also relatively frequent. Households of a comparatively large number of persons are most common among the Magyars and Poles. The former have 46.7 per cent of their households with 10 or more persons, and the Poles report 32.6 per cent of households having 10 or more persons. Among the Slovenians households composed of a small number of persons are general, 23.1 per cent having only 2 persons. Households composed 2 or 3 persons are also comparatively frequent among the Croatians, English, Finns, and North Italians.

CONGESTION.

The extent to which crowding prevails in the households of the employees of the copper mining and smelting industry is indicated in the preceding tables. The degree of congestion and its effects upon living arrangements is more directly set forth in the following series of tabulations. The first table presented, which follows, shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the average number of persons in apartments of each specified number of rooms. TABLE 42.-Average number of persons in apartments of each specified number of rooms,

by general nativity and race of head of household.

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The average number of persons per apartment increases steadily with the increase in the size of the apartment. Two-room apartments average 3.58 persons; apartments of 7 rooms or more, 7.40 persons.

In each instance the average number of persons per a partment is greater than the number of rooms per apartment. The Magyars, it should be noted, average 7.30 persons per 3-room apartment, a degree of crowding not approached by any other race.

The following table shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the average number of persons per apartment, per room, and per sleeping room: TABLE 43. --Average number of persons per apartment, per room and per sleeping roulli,

by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

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Total native-born..
Total foreign-born..

11
493

1. 64
5. 96

.76
1.29

1.82 2.50

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