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CHAPTER V.

GENERAL PROGRESS AND ASSIMILATION. Citizenship-Ability to speak English.—[Text Tables 181 to 186 and General Table

119].

CITIZENSHIP.

Relative to the extent to which foreign-born miners are manifesting an interest in citizenship, the following table shows, by race of individual, the present political condition of foreign-born male employees who have been in the United States five years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming to this country. Of the 33 foreign-born male employees for whom information was secured, as can be seen from the table below, only 5 were fully naturalized and 7 had first papers only. TABLE 181.-Present political condition of foreign-born male employees who have been

in the United States 5 years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming, by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)
(By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States.)

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The extent to which foreign-born male employees of non-Englishspeaking races could speak English is shown in the table below. The South Italian is the only race appearing in sufficient numbers for individual presentation. Table 182.—Per cent of foreign-born male employees who speak English, by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 40 or more males reporting. The total, however,

is for all non-English-speaking races.)

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It appears from the foregoing table that 60.2 per cent of all the foreign-born male employees for whom information was secured are able to speak English. The proportion of South Italian employees who speak English is 61.2 per cent.

A comparison of the younger and older immigrants according to age at the time of arrival in the United States, as regards the extent to which they have acquired the ability to speak English, is made in the tables below. The tabulation includes only employees of nonEnglish-speaking races, and the South Italian is the only race separately presented.

TABLE 183.-Ability to speak English of foreign-born male employees, by age at time

of coming to the United States and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)
[This table includes only non-English-speaking races.)

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Table 184.-Per cent of foreign-born male employees who speak English, by age at time

of coming to the United States and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 100 or more males reporting. The total, however,

is for all non-English-speaking races.)

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It appears from the data presented in the percentage table that 61.1 per cent of the foreign-born male employees for whom information was secured, who came to the United States when under 14 years of age, can speak English, as compared with 60.1 per cent of those who came here when 14 or over and 60.2 per cent of all employees,

irrespective of age at time of coming. The proportion of employees who came here when under 14 who speak English is considerably larger for all the foreign-born than for the South Italians, while the proportion speaking English of employees who came here when 14 or over, and of all employees, irrespective of age at time of coming, is slightly larger for the South Italians than for all the foreign-born.

The progress made in acquiring the ability to speak English by miners of foreign birth and non-English-speaking races after designated periods of residence is set forth in the following tables, which show, by years in the United States and race, the number and per cent of foreign-born male employees of non-English-speaking races who speak English. The South Italian is again the only race reporting in numbers sufficient for computation of percentages.

Table 185.- Ability to speak English of foreign-born male employees, by years in the

United States and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes

only non-English-speaking races.]

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TabLE 186.—Per cent of foreign-born male employees who speak English, by years in

the United States and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes

only non-English-speaking races with 100 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all nonEnglish-speaking races.]

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From the percentage table it appears that 47.3 per cent of the foreign-born male employees who have been in the United States under five years can speak English, as compared with 83 of the male employees who have been here from five to nine years, 82.4 per cent of those who have been here ten years, and 60.2 per cent of all foreignborn male employees. The proportions speaking English of its employees who have been in the United States under five years, from five to nine years, and ten years or over, respectively, are a little larger for the South Italians than for all employees. In the case of the South Italians, a larger proportion of employees who have been in the United States from five to nine years than of those who have been here under five years, and a larger proportion of those who have been here ten years or over than of those who have been here from five to nine years, can speak English, while the proportion of all employees speaking English is slightly larger among employees who have been here from five to nine years than among employees who have been here ten years or over.

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