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From the data presented in the percentage table it appears that only 6.4 per cent of the foreign-born male employees for whom information was secured were employed in mining before coming to the United States, while 74.4 per cent were employed in farming or farm labor, 9 per cent in general labor, 3.8 per cent in hand trades, 1.3 per cent in manufacturing, 0.6 per cent in trade, and 4.5 per cent in occupations not specified. A somewhat smaller proportion of the South Italians than of all foreign-born males were employed abroad in mining, in general labor, and in occupations not specified, and a somewhat larger proportion were employed in farming or farm labor.

WEEKLY EARNINGS.

The average amount and range in amount of weekly earnings of all employees for whom information was secured is exhibited by the table next presented. It shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the percentage of male employees 18 years of age or over who were earning each specified amount per week:

Table 170.Per cent of male employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified

amount per week, by general nativity and race.

*

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only races with 80 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

General nativity and race.

Per cent earning each specified amount per week. Number

Average reporting

earnings
complete

$7.50
$12.50

$17.50
per week. $5 or

$10 or

$15 or data.

$20 or
or
or

or
over.
over.
over.

over.
over.
over.

over.

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* This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

It appears from the above table that almost all of the male employees 18 years of age or over for whom information was secured earn at least $5 per week, that 89.2 per cent earn $7.50 or over, that 61.8 per cent earn $10 or over, that 13.8 per cent earn $12.50 or over, that 10.9 per cent earn $15 or over that 5.5 per cent earn $17.50 or over, and that only 1.4 per cent earn $20 or over. The proportion of employees earning $7.50 or over, $12.50 or over, $15

$ or over, and $17.50 or over per week, respectively, is largest for the native-born of native father, white, second largest for the native born of native father, negro, and smallest for the foreign-born, while the proportion of male employees earning $10 or over per week is larger for the native-born of native father, negro, than for the nativeborn of native father, white, and is smallest for the foreign-born. A smaller proportion of the South Italians than of all foreign-born

employees are reported as earning $5 or over, $7.50 or over, and $10 or over per week, respectively. None of the South Italian employees earn as much as $12.50 per week.

The following table shows, by general nativity and race, the percentage of male employees 14 and under 18 years of age who were earning weekly each specified amount:

TABLE 171.Per cent of male employees 14 and under 18 years of age earning each specified

omount per week, by general nativity and race.*

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (This table includes only races with 40 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

From the above table it appears that 52.8 per cent of the foreignborn male employees 14 and under 18 years of age for whom information was secured earn $5 or over per week; that 31 per cent earn $7.50 or over; that 9.9 per cent earn $10 or over; and that only 0.4 per cent earn $12.50 or over. The proportion of employees earning $5 or over and $7.50 or over per week, respectively, is considerably larger for the native-born of native father, white, than for the negroes, native-born of native father, while a larger proportion of the negroes native-born of native father, than of the whites native-born of native father, earn $10 or over per week.

The earnings of children employed in iron-ore mining in Alabama are exhibited in the table following, which shows, by age and general nativity and race, the number of male employees under 14 years of age earning each specified amount per week.

TABLE 172.- Number of male employees under 14 years of age earning each specified

amount per week, by age and general nativity and race.*

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* This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

CHAPTER IV.

SALIENT CHARACTERISTICS.

Literacy-Conjugal condition—Visits abroad-Age classification of employees,

[Text Tables 173 to 180 and General Tables 116 to 118.]

LITERACY.

The degree of literacy prevailing among the Alabama iron-ore miners is set forth in the following table, which shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the per cent of male employees who could read and percentage who could read and write:

TabLE 173.Per cent of male employees who read and per cent who read and write, by

general nativity and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (This table includes only races with 40 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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Of the male employees for whom information was secured, 66.8 per cent are able to read only and 65.4 per cent are able both to read and to write. The proportion of employees who read and read and write is larger for the foreign-born than for the negroes native-born of native father, and much larger for the whites native-born of native father than for the foreign-born. Of the foreign-born, a somewhat larger proportion of the South Italians than of the North Italians are able to read and to read and write. The percentages reported for both the races specified are smaller than the percentages reported for all foreign-born male employees.

CONJUGAL CONDITION.

The table next presented shows the percentage of male employees 20 years of age or over who were in each conjugal condition. The exhibit is by general nativity and race of individual,

Table 174.-Per cent of male employees 20 years of age or over in each conjugal con

dition, by general nativity and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only races with 40 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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The above table shows that 64 per cent of the male employees 20 years of age or over for whom information was secured are married and that only 4.6 per cent are widowed. The proportion of married employees is largest among the native-born of native father, white, second largest among the native-born of native father, negro, and smallest among the foreign-born, while the proportion of widowed employees is largest among the native-born of native father, negro, second largest among the native-born of native father, white, and smallest among the foreign-born. A slightly larger proportion of the South Italian employees than of all foreign-born employees are married. None of the South Italian employees are widowed.

The following table divides the totals of the preceding table on the basis of age and shows, by age groups and general nativity and race, the percentage of male employees who were in each conjugal condition:

Table 175.---Per cent of male employees in each conjugal condition, by age groups and

by general nativity and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only races with 100 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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Grand total. Total native-born.. Total foreign-born.

1,423 53. 1 44.6 2.3 1.219 16.2 79.2 4.5

1,352 51.7 45.9 2.4 1,148 15.0 80.3 4.7

71 80.3 19.7 .0 71 36.6 62.0 1.4

495 6.3 82.2 11.5 3, 137 31. 4 64.0 4.6 454 6.4 81. 1 12. 6 2,954 30.5 64.7 4.9 41 4.995.1 .0 183 46. 453.0 0.5

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