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PART IV.-GENERAL SURVEY OF THE INDUSTRY IN ALABAMA.

CHAPTER I.

INTRODUCTION.

Scope of the study-Employees for whom information was secured—[Text Table

164 and General Table 113].

SCOPE OF THE STUDY.

The presentation of data for the iron-ore mines of Alabama has been restricted to a general survey of the operating force for the reason that the great body of employees are negroes and native whites and only a very small proportion are of foreign birth. The employees for whom detailed information was received were obviously working in the Birmingham district.

EMPLOYEES FOR WHOM INFORMATION WAS SECURED.

An intensive study was made of households the heads of which were employed in the Alabama iron-ore mines, and the returns for these households are included in the tabulations for the industry as a whole. A total of iron-ore miners was also studied and the data thus secured, as already pointed out, are used as the basis for the present report.

The following table shows the number of male employees of each race for whom information was secured:

TABLE 164.- Male employees of each race for whom information was secured.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

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2d sess.)

a For a distribution of the labor forces in the Birmingham district, see Vol. II of Iron and Steel Manufacturing. Reports of the Immigration Commission, vols. 8 and 9. (S. Doc. No. 633, pt. 2, 61st

Cong. Less than 0.05 per cent.

CHAPTER II.

RACIAL DISPLACEMENTS.

Period of residence in the United States of foreign-born employees-Racial classi

fication of employees at the present time Text Tables 165 to 167].

PERIOD OF RESIDENCE IN THE UNITED STATES OF FOREIGN-BORN

EMPLOYEES.

The following tables show by race the number and percentage of foreign-born male employees who had been in the United States ea specified number of years. They indicate the character of immigration to the Alabama iron-ore mines as well as the period of residence of the employees of foreign birth. Although the period of employment in the Alabama mines and the period of residence in the United States are not necessarily identical, they closely approximate each other. The South Italian is the only race appearing in sufficient numbers for the computation of percentages: Table 165.-Number of foreign-born male employees in the United States each specified

number of years, by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. No deduction is made

for time spent abroad.)

Race.

Number in United States each specified number of years. Number reporting complete Under

5 to

10 to 15 to 20 or data.

1. 2. 3. 4. 1.

9. 14. 19. over.

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TABLE 166.—Per cent of foreign-born male employees in the United States each specified

number of years, by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. No deduction is

made for time spent abroad. This table includes only races with 40 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

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It appears from the percentage table that 59 per cent of the foreignborn male employees for whom information was secured have been in the United States under five years, 26 per cent from five to nine years, 3.5 per cent from ten to fourteen years, 3.5 per cent from fifteen to nineteen years, and 8 per cent twenty years of over. The proportion of employees who have been in this country under five years and from five to nine years is larger, and the proportion who have been here from ten to fourteen years, from fifteen to nineteen years, and twenty years or over, respectively, is smaller for the South Italians than for all foreign-born employees.

RACIAL CLASSIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES AT THE PRESENT TIME.

The racial make-up of the operating forces of the mines is exhibited by the table next presented. It shows of a total of 3,652 employees the number who were of each race and nativity group:

TABLE 167.-Male employees of each race for whom information was secured.

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Of the male employees for whom information was secured, 5.6 per cent are foreign-born, 27.3 per cent are white native-born of native father, and 67.1 per cent are negroes native-born of native father. The South Italians and North Italians, in the order mentioned, are the races having the largest representation among the foreign-born.

CHAPTER III.

ECONOMIC STATUS.

Principal occupation of immigrant employees before coming to the United States

Weekly earnings[Text Tables 168 to 172 and General Tables 114 and 115].

PRINCIPAL OCCUPATION OF IMMIGRANT EMPLOYEES BEFORE COMING

TO THE UNITED STATES.

In order to make an intelligent study of the economic status of the foreign-born iron-ore miners at the present time and to understand the industrial significance of their employment in the iron-ore mines, it is necessary to set forth their industrial condition before their immigration to this country. In this connection the following tables show, by race, the number and the percentage of foreign-born male employees who were in each specified occupation before coming to the United States. The South Italian is the only race appearing in sufficient numbers for the computation of percentages: TABLE 168.-Occupation of foreign-born male employees before coming to the United

States, by race.

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TABLE 169.-Per cent of foreign-born male employees in each specified occupation before

coming to the United States, by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only races with 80 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

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