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Of the foreign-born, the Croatians and Finns have the largest and the French Canadians and English the smallest proportion of individuals from 20 to 24 years of age; the North Italians and Finns have the largest and the English and the French Canadians the smallest proportion from 25 to 29 years of age; and the Slovaks have the largest and the South Italians the smallest proportion from 30 to 34. The proportion of individuals from 35 to 44 is largest for the French Canadians, Slovaks, and Slovenians, in the order mentioned; the proportion of individuals from 45 to 54 'is largest for the English, French Canadians, and Swedes in the order mentioned; and the proportion of those 55 or over is largest for the French Canadians and English, in the order mentioned:

CHAPTER V.

GENERAL PROGRESS AND ASSIMILATION. Citizenship-Ability to speak English-Employers' opinions of recent immigrante

[Text Tables 159 to 163 and General Tables 110 to 112].

CITIZENSHIP.

The extent to which foreign-born employees have acquired or manifested an interest in attaining citizenship is set forth in the following table which shows by race the present political condition of foreignborn male employees who had been in the United States five years or over, and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming to this country: TABLE 159. - Present political condition of foreign-born male employees who have been

in the United States 5 years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming, by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

(By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States.)

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a Not computed, owing to small number involved. It appears from the above table that 45.2 per cent of the foreignborn male employees, for whom information was secured, are fully naturalized, and that 24.8 per cent have first papers only. Of the races, for which the percentages have been computed, the Swedes and English, in the order mentioned, have the largest and the Slovaks and Poles the smallest proportion fully naturalized. The proportion of those having first papers only is largest for the North Italians and Slovaks, in the order mentioned, and smallest for the Poles and Swedes.

The interest exhibited by the iron ore miners of foreign birth in acquiring citizenship after designated periods of residence in this country may be seen from the following table, which shows by years in the United States and race the present political condition of foreign-born male employees who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming to the United States: Table 160.—Present political condition of foreign-born male employees who were 21

years of age or over at time of coming to the United States, by years in United States and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes

only races with 100 or more males reporting. Thị total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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In United States 5

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It appears from the above table that 18.5 per cent of the foreignborn employees, for whom information was secured, who have been in the United States from five to nine years, and 76.1 per cent of those who have been here ten years or over, are fully naturalized. Of those who have been here from five to nine years, 34.7 per cent, as compared with 13.4 per cent of those who have been here ten years or over, have first papers only. The percentages for the Finns, the only race for which the percentages are given, show the same tendencies as do the percentages for all foreign-born employees.

ABILITY TO SPEAK ENGLISH.

The table next presented shows by race the proportion of foreignborn male employees of non-English-speaking races who were able to speak English:

Table 161.-Per cent of foreign-born male employees who speak English, by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 40 or more males reporting. The total, however,

is for all non-English-speaking races.)

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158

Canadian, French.
Croatian..
Finnish.
Italian, North..
Italian, South..
Polish..

100.0
32. 3
60.5
45. 3
48. 1
51.1

Slovak.
Slovenian.
Swedish.

127

81.9 50.8 89.4

65 160

661 541

54 393

Total..

2, 408

57.3

Of the foreign-born male employees, for whom information was secured, 57.3 per cent speak English. All of the French Canadians speak English. With this exception, the proportion of employees who speak English is largest for the Swedes, Slovaks, and Finns, in the order mentioned, and smallest for the Croatians.

The tabulation next submitted makes possible a comparison of the relative proportion of immigrants able to speak English by age at time of arrival in this country. It shows the per cent of foreign-born male employees of non-English-speaking races who were able to speak English, by age at time of coming to the United States and race.

TABLE 162.--Per cent of foreign-born male employees who speak English, by age at time

of coming to the United States and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 100 or more males reporting. The total, how

ever, is for all non-English-speaking races.)

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It appears, from the data presented in the above table, that 97.5 per cent of the foreign-born male employees for whom information was secured, who came to the United States when under 14 years of age, can speak English, as compared with 55.9 per cent of those who came here when 14 or over, and 57.3 per cent of all employees. All of the employees, of the races for which the percentages are given, who came to this country when under 14 can speak English. The proportion of employees who came here when 14 or over who speak English is largest for the Swedes and Slovaks and smallest for the Croatians and North Italians.

The advancement manifested by mine workers of foreign birth and of non-English-speaking races in acquiring an ability to speak English after designated periods of residence is set forth in the table next presented. It shows by years in the United States and race the percentage of foreign-born male employees who speak English.

48296°-VOL 16-11-28

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