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country ten years or over, reporting visits abroad, is much larger for the North Italians than for any other race, and is smallest for the Poles and Finns.

AGE CLASSIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES.

The range in ages of employees is exhibited in the table next presented which shows by general nativity and race the proportion of male employees within each specified age group.

TABLE 158.-Per cent of male employees within each age group, by general nativity and

race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only races with 40 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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It appears from the above table that none of the male employees, for whom information was secured, are under 14 years of age; that 6.3 per cent are from 14 to 19; that 27.2 per cent are from 20 to 24; that 24.1 per cent are from 25 to 29; that 16.4 per cent are from 30 to 34; that 17.6 per cent are from 35 to 44; that 6.8 per cent are from 45 to 54; and that only 1.5 per cent are 55 or over. The proportion of employees from 20 to 24 years of age is largest for the nativeborn of foreign father and smallest for the foreign-born; the proportion of employees from 25 to 29 and from 35 to 44, respectively, is largest for the foreign-born and smallest for the native-born of foreign father; the proportion of employees from 30 to 34 is largest for the foreign-born and smallest for the native-born of native father; the proportion of employees from 45 to 54 is largest for the nativeborn of native father and smallest for the native-born of foreign father; and the proportion of employees 55 or over is slightly larger for the native-born of foreign father than for the foreign-born.

Of the foreign-born, the Croatians and Finns have the largest and the French Canadians and English the smallest proportion of individuals from 20 to 24 years of age; the North Italians and Finns have the largest and the English and the French Canadians the smallest proportion from 25 to 29 years of age; and the Slovaks have the largest and the South Italians the smallest proportion from 30 to 34. The proportion of individuals from 35 to 44 is largest for the French Canadians, Slovaks, and Slovenians, in the order mentioned; the proportion of individuals from 45 to 54 is largest for the English, French Canadians, and Swedes in the order mentioned; and the proportion of those 55 or over is largest for the French Canadians and English, in the order mentioned:

CHAPTER V.

GENERAL PROGRESS AND ASSIMILATION.

Citizenship Ability to speak English-Employers' opinions of recent immigrants [Text Tables 159 to 163 and General Tables 110 to 112].

CITIZENSHIP.

The extent to which foreign-born employees have acquired or manifested an interest in attaining citizenship is set forth in the following table which shows by race the present political condition of foreignborn male employees who had been in the United States five years or over, and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming to this country:

TABLE 159-Present political condition of foreign-born male employees who have been in the United States 5 years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming, by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States.]

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It appears from the above table that 45.2 per cent of the foreignborn male employees, for whom information was secured, are fully naturalized, and that 24.8 per cent have first papers only. Of the races, for which the percentages have been computed, the Swedes and English, in the order mentioned, have the largest and the Slovaks and Poles the smallest proportion fully naturalized. The proportion

of those having first papers only is largest for the North Italians and Slovaks, in the order mentioned, and smallest for the Poles and Swedes.

The interest exhibited by the iron ore miners of foreign birth in acquiring citizenship after designated periods of residence in this country may be seen from the following table, which shows by years in the United States and race the present political condition of foreign-born male employees who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming to the United States:

TABLE 160.-Present political condition of foreign-born male employees who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming to the United States, by years in United States and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes only races with 100 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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It appears from the above table that 18.5 per cent of the foreignborn employees, for whom information was secured, who have been in the United States from five to nine years, and 76.1 per cent of those who have been here ten years or over, are fully naturalized. Of those who have been here from five to nine years, 34.7 per cent, as compared with 13.4 per cent of those who have been here ten years or over, have first papers only. The percentages for the Finns, the only race for which the percentages are given, show the same tendencies as do the percentages for all foreign-born employees.

ABILITY TO SPEAK ENGLISH.

The table next presented shows by race the proportion of foreignborn male employees of non-English-speaking races who were able to speak English.

TABLE 161.-Per cent of foreign-born male employees who speak English, by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 40 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all non-English-speaking races.]

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