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Only four-tenths per cent of the 491 families for which data were secured have a yearly income less than $300, and slightly more than 1 per cent have an income less than $500, while 71.3 per cent have incomes of $750 or more, 31.8 per cent $1,000 or more, and 12 per cent $1,500 or more, and the average yearly income for all families reporting is $991. The English alone report a percentage earning less than $300, and the English, Croatians, Finns, and Norwegians report small proportions earning under $500. Generally speaking, the older immigrant races show much higher proportions earning $750 per year or more than the more recent races, while 50 per cent or more of all races except the Irish, Swedish, and Polish earn under $1,000. More than 75 per cent of all races except the Irish and Swedish earn under $1,500. The last named races are the only ones with an average yearly income of $1,200 or more.

WIVES AT WORK.

In the 491 selected families there were 486 wives. Of the latter number, all but 13 of whom were in the foreign-born class, none were at work.

RELATION BETWEEN THE EARNINGS OF HUSBANDS AND THE PRACTICE OF WIVES OF KEEPING BOARDERS OR LODGERS.

Although a considerable proportion of the wives of the families, the heads of which were connected with the copper industry, as well as other female members of the families, seek regular employment outside the home as a means of contributing to the family support, a much larger proportion of the wives add to the earnings of their husbands by taking boarders or lodgers into the home. The extent to which the wives of the families find it necessary to supplement, in this way, the earnings of their husbands is set forth in the tables following, which show the number and percentage of families in which wife has employment or keeps boarders or lodgers, according to yearly earnings and general nativity and race of head of family.

TABLE 27.-Number of families in which wife has employment or keeps boarders or lodgers, by yearly earnings of husband and by general nativity and race of head of family.

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a For selection of families, see p. 110. Of the selected families, only those which have both husband and wife present appear in this table.

TABLE 28-Number and per cent of families in which wife has employment or keeps boarders or lodgers, by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[For selection of families, see p. 110. Of the selection of families only those which have both husband and wife present appear in this table.]

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Of 477 families selected for study, 18.4 per cent of the wives are employed or keep boarders or lodgers. In families, the heads of which are foreign-born, 18.8 per cent of the wives are employed or keep boarders or lodgers. Families the heads of which are Magyars, show 83.3 per cent having wives employed or keeping boarders or lodgers. Families the heads of which are English or Slovenians, show 50 per cent or over and families the heads of which are Croatians over 40 per cent in which the wife has employment or keeps boarders or lodgers. Families whose heads are North Italian, Poles, French Canadians, or Finns, show small proportions when compared with other races enumerated above, and Irish, Norwegian, and Swedish families having no wives employed or keeping boarders or lodgers.

SOURCES OF FAMILY INCOME.

The two tables next presented exhibit the sources of family income in detail. The first of these submitted shows, by general nativity and race of head of family, the percentage of families who had an income within the year from husband, wife, children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources. The past year referred to in the table means the twelve months immediately preceding the collection of the data.

TABLE 29.-Per cent of families having an income within the year from husband, wife, children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources, by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races, One family is excluded which reports income as "none."]

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Of the total 490 selected families, 98.4 per cent had an income within the year from the earnings of the husband; 25.9 per cent had an income from the contributions of the children, 18.4 per cent from the payments of boarders or lodgers; 14.9 per cent from other sources; and none had an income from the earnings of wife. These

figures closely reflect the proportions of foreign-born families having an income from each specified source, since all but 13 of the total number of families are of that class. Earnings of husband is the most common source of income of each specified race, the smallest

Pon having an income from that source being 88 per cent of the

Contributions from the children are a common source of income among the French Canadians, Irish, Polish, and Swedish as compared with the remaining races. Payments of boarders or lodgers is more frequently a source of income of the Magyars than of any other race. However, large proportions of the Croatians, English, and Slovenians also have an income from that source, as compared with the proportion of the total foreign-born group.

The following table also shows the source of family income according to general nativity and race of head of family, but differs from the preceding table in that each specified source is exclusive of all other

Sources:

TABLE 30.-Source of family income in detail, by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races. One family is excluded which reports income as "none."]

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Of the foreign-born households, 45.5 per cent draw their entire income from the earnings of husbands; 20.8 per cent from husband and children; 15.9 per cent from husband and boarders or lodgers. Among the Croatians, Finns, North Italians, and Norwegians the husband is the most common source of the entire family income, that being a particularly common source among the Finnish. In FrenchCanadian, Irish, Polish, and Swedish households the husband and children are the most frequent source of the entire income. Of the Mag

yar families 76.7 per cent have their entire income from husband and boarders or lodgers. It is also a relatively common source, compared to the total foreign-born group, among the Croatians, English, and Slovenians.

RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF DIFFERENT SOURCES OF FAMILY INCOME.

The extent to which the families studied depend upon the designated sources of income is set forth in the table next submitted, which shows, by general nativity and race of head of family, the per cent of total yearly income from husband, wife, children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources.

TABLE 31.-Per cent of total family income within the year from husband, wife, children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources, by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races. One family is excluded which reports income as "none."]

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Of the entire income of the total number of selected families, 73.3 per cent is from the earnings of husband; 16.3 per cent is from the contributions of children; 8.9 per cent from the payments of boarders or lodgers. These figures closely reflect the composition of the family income of the foreign-born, all but 13 of the selected families being of that class. The families of each specified race draw a greater proportion of their income from the earnings of husband than from any other source, the proportion ranging from 53.9 per cent of the income in Irish families to 87.9 per cent in Finnish families. However, 45.4 per cent of the total income of the Irish is from the contributions of children. The latter is also a relatively large part of the family income of the French Canadians, Poles, and Swedes. Payments of boarders or lodgers, on the other hand, are a relatively important factor of the incomes of the Croatians, English, Magyars, and Slovenians as compared with the remaining races.

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