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TABLE 23.-Husbands at work, by general nativity and race of individual.

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Of the 482 husbands 100 per cent are at work, their average earnings being $740. Since all but 13 of the total number of husbands are foreign-born, figures for the total closely reflect the condition among that class. All the husbands of each specified race are at work, their average earnings ranging from $631 among the Croatians to $973 among the Swedish.

The range in annual earnings of male heads of families is set forth in the following table according to general nativity and race of individual:

Table 24.--Earnings per year of male heads of families, by general nativity and race of

individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only male heads of selected families. For selection of families, see p. 110.)

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6 26

Native-born of native father,

White.
Native-born of foreign father,
by race of father:
English..
German.

Norwegian.
Foreign-born:

Canadian, French,
Croatian
English.
Finnish
German.
Irish.
Italian, North
Magyar.
Norwegian
Polish,
Slovak.
Slovenian
Swedish

Grand total.

13

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OvOINNOINE

21 43 23 89 10 14 70 30

8 38 10 23 9

23 0.0 0.0 0.0 26.1 91.3 100.0 44 .0 .0 .059.1 97.7 100.0 27 .0 3.7 3.714.8 85.2 100.0 92 .0 .0 1.1 14.0 95.7 98.9 14 (a)l(a)(a)(a)(a) () 20 .0 .0 .0 9.1 63.690.9 84 .0 .0 1.2 5.8 81.4 97.7 30 .0.0.0 6.7 100.0 100.0 17 :0 0.0 8.3 33.3 70.8

.0 .0 11.6 88. 4 100.0 11 (a) (@) () () (@) (6) 24 .0 .0 .020.8 95.8 100.0 21 .01 .0.0.0 36.0 84.0

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740

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72 394 461

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Total native-born of foreign

father... Total native-born. Total foreign-born.

13 169

(a)

817
737

3

(a) 6 11 (a)(a)(a) 72 388 450 .0.2 .615.4 82.7 95.9

1

3

a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

The table shows that of 482 male heads of families 0.2 per cent earn under $200 per year, 0.6 per cent earn under $400, 14.9 per cent earn under $600, 81.7 per cent earn under $800, and 95.6 per cent earn under $1,000 per year. The foreign-born heads of families report the same percentage earning under $200 and under $400, as is shown for the total number of heads of families studied. The percentage of foreign-born heads of families earning under $600, under $800, and under $1,000 per year is slightly higher than the percentage shown in the total for all heads of families for whom information was secured earning the above specified amounts. The average yearly earnings for all male heads of families for whom information was secured is $740; the average yearly earnings of the foreign-born heads of families is $737, that of the heads of families who are native-born whites of native father being $895. The Swedish heads of families show the highest average yearly earnings, which is $973. The Norwegian, German, and Irish heads of families show average yearly earnings of over $800. The North Italian, Finnish, Polish, and English heads of families show averuge yearly earnings of over $700, and the average yearly earnings of the Slovak, French Canadian, Magyar, Slovenian, and Croatian heads of families range from $687 to $631 per year. The English, North Italian, and Finnish heads of families show small proportions earning under $400 as contrasted with no heads of families of other races earning under this amount. The Croatian heads of families show the highest percentage earning under $600, while the Swedish heads of families show none of their number earning under $600. The Magyar hrads of families report 100 per cent and the Norwegian heads of families only 33.3 per cent earning under $800 per year. The Finnish,

orth Italian, and Irish heads of families report over 90 per cent, the Swedish heads of families over 80 per cent, and the Norwegian heads of families over 70 per cent earning under $1,000, the heads of families of the other specified races showing 100 per cent earning under the above-mentioned amount per year.

ANNUAL EARNINGS OF MALES 18 YEARS OF AGE OR OVER IN THE

HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

In the table next submitted the average and range of annual earnings of all males in the households studied who were 18 years of age or over are shown by general nativity and race of individual. Table 25.— Yearly earnings (approximate) of males 18 years of age or over, by general

nativity and race of individual.

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Native-born of native

father, White...
Native-born of foreign
father, by race of father:

Canadian, French..
English..
Finnish.
German.
Irish..
Italian, North.
Norwegian
Polish

Swedish
Foreign-born:

Canadian, French.
Croatian.
English.
Finnish.
French.
Gerinan
Irish..
Italian, North
Magyar.
Norwegian.
Polish
Slovak
Slovenian.
Swedish.

Grand total..
Total native-born of for-

eign father
Total native born.
Total foreign-born.

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8 30

6 16

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2.1

...... ELASE

3

664 635 726 709 (a) 802 799 743 676 872 709 687 674 973

100.0 100.0 100.0

99.0 (a) (a) 91.3 98.3 100.0

75.0 100.0 (a) 100.0 84.0

OWNO

a
)

6

26 21

0 .0

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691

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19.7

96.7

1

121 135 556

632 656 731

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a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

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It appears from the table that 96.7 per cent of the males for whom information was secured earn under $1,000 a year, that 19.7 per cent earn under $600 a year, and that only a very small proportion earn under $400 a year. The proportion of individuals earning under $600 and under $1,000, respectively, is larger for those who were native-born of foreign father than for the foreign-born. The difference in the percentages is particularly noticeable in the case of the males earning under $600. Of the foreign-born of the races for which percentages have been computed the Croatians, French Canadians, and Slovenians have the largest proportions of males earning under $600 il year. All of the French Canadians, Croatians, English, Magyars, Poles, and Slovenians and a considerably larger proportion of the Finns and North Italians than of the Irish, Swedes, and Norwegians earn under $1,000 a year.

ANNUAL FAMILY INCOME.

In the series of tabulations which is next presented the average amount and range of annual family income are studied, together with the different sources of family income and their relative importance. The folllowing table, submitted in this connection, shows, by general nativity and race of head of family, the percentage of families having a total yearly income of each specified amount:

TABLE 26.Per cent of families having a total yearly income of each specified amount, by

general nativity and race of head of family.

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(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.

One family is included which reports income as “none.")

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a For selection of families, see p. 110. Not computed, owing to small number involved.

Only four-tenths per cent of the 491 families for which data were secured have a yearly income less than $300, and slightly more than 1 per cent have an income less than $500, while 71.3 per cent have incomes of $750 or more, 31.8 per cent $1,000 or more, and 12 per cent $1,500 or more, and the average yearly income for all families reporting is $991. The English alone report a percentage earning less than $300, and the English, Croatians, Finns, and Norwegians report small proportions earning under $500. Generally speaking, the older immigrant races show much higher proportions earning $750 per year or more than the more recent races, while 50 per cent or more of all races except the Irish, Swedish, and Polish earn under $1,000. More than 75 per cent of all races except the Irish and Swedish earn under $1,500. The last named races are the only ones with an average yearly income of $1,200 or more.

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In the 491 selected families there were 486 wives. Of the latter number, all but 13 of whom were in the foreign-born class, none were at work.

RELATION BETWEEN THE EARNINGS OF HUSBANDS AND THE PRACTICE

OF WIVES OF KEEPING BOARDERS OR LODGERS.

Although a considerable proportion of the wives of the families, the heads of which were connected with the copper industry, as well as other female members of the families, seek regular employment outside the home as a means of contributing to the family support, a much larger proportion of the wives add to the earnings of their husbands by taking boarders or lodgers into the home. The extent to which the wives of the families find it necessary to supplement, in this way, the earnings of their husbands is set forth in the tables following, which show the number and percentage of families in which wife has employment or keeps boarders or lodgers, according to yearly earnings and general nativity and race of head of family.

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