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TABLE 22.-Comparative earnings per week of foreign-born male employees 18 years of age or over, by race and length of residence in the United States.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes only races with 200 or more males reporting.]

IN UNITED STATES LESS THAN 5 YEARS.

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a This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

With the exception of a certain small proportion of the Croatians and Finns who have been in the United States ten years or over, each race shows that its entire number earn $7.50 or over. The French Canadian is the only race not showing a proportion of its number who have been in the United States less than five years who earn as high as $15 a week, as compared with 59.1 per cent of the English. The same races show the largest and smallest proportions, with each other specified period of residence, earning the same amount. Less than 5 per cent of those of any given race with a period of residence of less than ten years earn as high as $20 a week-the English showing 12.6 per cent and the North Italians none of their number with a period of residence of ten years or over earning this amount. The English is the only race reporting a proportion earning as high as $25 a week.

ANNUAL EARNINGS OF MALE HEADS OF FAMILIES STUDIED.

The annual earnings of male heads of families studied are next considered. The first table presented shows, by general nativity and race of husband, the number and per cent of husbands at work, together with their average annual earnings.

TABLE 23.-Husbands at work, by general nativity and race of individual.

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Of the 482 husbands 100 per cent are at work, their average earnings being $740. Since all but 13 of the total number of husbands are foreign-born, figures for the total closely reflect the condition among that class. All the husbands of each specified race are at work, their average earnings ranging from $631 among the Croatians to $973 among the Swedish.

The range in annual earnings of male heads of families is set forth in the following table according to general nativity and race of individual:

TABLE 24.--Earnings per year of male heads of families, by general nativity and race of individual.

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The table shows that of 482 male heads of families 0.2 per cent earn under $200 per year, 0.6 per cent earn under $400, 14.9 per cent earn under $600, 81.7 per cent earn under $800, and 95.6 per cent earn under $1,000 per year. The foreign-born heads of families report the same percentage earning under $200 and under $400, as is shown for the total number of heads of families studied. The percentage of foreign-born heads of families earning under $600, under $800, and under $1,000 per year is slightly higher than the percentage shown in the total for all heads of families for whom information was secured earning the above specified amounts. The average yearly earnings for all male heads of families for whom information was secured is $740; the average yearly earnings of the foreign-born heads of families is $737, that of the heads of families who are native-born whites of native father being $895. The Swedish heads of families show the highest average yearly earnings, which is $973. The Norwegian, German, and Irish heads of families show average yearly earnings of over $800. The North Italian, Finnish, Polish, and English heads of families show average yearly earnings of over $700, and the average yearly earnings of the

Slovak, French Canadian, Magyar, Slovenian, and Croatian heads of families range from $687 to $631 per year. The English, North Italian, and Finnish heads of families show small proportions earning under $400 as contrasted with no heads of families of other races earning under this amount. The Croatian heads of families show the highest percentage earning under $600, while the Swedish heads of families show none of their number earning under $600. The Magyar heads of families report 100 per cent and the Norwegian heads of families only 33.3 per cent earning under $800 per year. The Finnish, North Italian, and Irish heads of families report over 90 per cent, the Swedish heads of families over 80 per cent, and the Norwegian heads of families over 70 per cent earning under $1,000, the heads of families of the other specified races showing 100 per cent earning under the above-mentioned amount per year.

ANNUAL EARNINGS OF MALES 18 YEARS OF AGE OR OVER IN THE HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

In the table next submitted the average and range of annual earnings of all males in the households studied who were 18 years of age or over are shown by general nativity and race of individual.

TABLE 25.-Yearly earnings (approximate) of males 18 years of age or over, by general nativity and race of individual.

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It appears from the table that 96.7 per cent of the males for whom information was secured earn under $1,000 a year, that 19.7 per cent earn under $600 a year, and that only a very small proportion earn under $400 a year. The proportion of individuals earning under $600 and under $1,000, respectively, is larger for those who were native-born of foreign father than for the foreign-born. The difference in the percentages is particularly noticeable in the case of the males earning under $600. Of the foreign-born of the races for which percentages have been computed the Croatians, French Canadians, and Slovenians have the largest proportions of males earning under $600 a year. All of the French Canadians, Croatians, English, Magyars, Poles, and Slovenians and a considerably larger proportion of the Finns and North Italians than of the Irish, Swedes, and Norwegians earn under $1,000 a year.

ANNUAL FAMILY INCOME.

In the series of tabulations which is next presented the average amount and range of annual family income are studied, together with the different sources of family income and their relative importance. The following table, submitted in this connection, shows, by general nativity and race of head of family, the percentage of families having a total yearly income of each specified amount:

TABLE 26. Per cent of families having a total yearly income of each specified amount, by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races. One family is included which reports income as "none."]

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