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table submitted shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the general occupations of females in the households studied who were 16 years of age or over. Table 18.-General occupation of females 16 years of age or over, by general nativity and

race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more females reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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Of the total number of females 16 years of age or over, 88.7 per cent are at home, 4.2 per cent are at school, and a proportion smaller than the latter in every other specified occupation. Those who were native-born of foreign father show 69.4 per cent at home, as conpared with 97.6 per cent of foreign-born. The former, on the other hand, have a larger proportion in every other general occupation than the foreign-born. Of the native-born of foreign father the Germans have 47.8 per cent at home, while the proportion at home of the remaining races of this class range from 63.2 per cent of the Irish to 85 per cent of the Finns. The greater number of the specified races of foreign-born show 100 per cent at home. The smallest proportion at home in this class is 94.3 per cent of Croatians.

The table following shows the per cent of males 16 years of age or over engaged in the copper-mining industry, by general nativity and race of father and by birthplace of individual.

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Table 19.- Per cent of males 16 years of age or over engaged in the copper-mining industry, by general nativity and race of father and by birthplace of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (This table includes only races with 20 or more males born in the United States and also 20 or more born

abroad. The native-born of native father are shown for comparative purposes.)

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The preceding table shows that 100 per cent of the Irish and Swedes who were born abroad and concerning whom information was secured are engaged in copper mining. Of the Poles who were born

. abroad, 95.7 per cent are engaged in copper mining and 4.3 per cent are otherwise employed.

Of the Poles who were born in the United States, 76.9 per cent are engaged in copper mining and 23.1 per cent are otherwise employed. The Swedes and the Irish who were born in the United States show considerably smaller proportions than the Poles who are engaged in copper mining.

WEEKLY EARNINGS.

The following table shows, by general nativity and race, the percentage of male employees who were 18 years of age or over and who were earning each specified amount each week: Table 20.--Per cent of male employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified

amount per week, by general nativity and race. *

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only races with 80 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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Native-born of native
father, White.

1,416
$12.49 99.9 99. 2 72.2 40.4 20.6

12.8 5.5 2.8 Vative-born of foreign

father, by country of
birth of father:
Canada
217 12. 68 100.0 99.5 87.1

48.4

16.6 3.7 .9 .5 England.

253 14.57 100.0 99.6 93.3 75. 1 50.2 15.0 6.3 2.0 Germany 180 14.02! 100.0 99.4 95.6

63.9
34.4 11.1

1.7 Ireland..

81

14.37 | 100.0 98. 81 92.6 66.7 35.8 17.3 4.9 1.2 * This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

49290° --VOL 16--11--3

TABLE 20.—Per cent of male employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified amount per week, by general nativity and race—

-Continued

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Of the 6,797 males 18 years of age or over employed in the coppermining industry, all earn as high as $5 per week, 68.2 per cent earn $12.50 or over, 32.9 per cent earn $15 or over, and 7.3 per cent earn $17.50 or over per week. The foreign-born show a larger proportion than the native-born of foreign father, who in turn show a larger proportion than the native-born of native father white, earning each specified amount from $7.50 to $17.50, while the native whites born of native father show a larger proportion than the native-born of foreign father, who in turn show a larger proportion than the foreignborn, earning each specified rate above this amount. cent of each foreign race earn $12.50 or over per week, the Croatian showing the largest and the French Canadian the smallest proportion, so reported. The English, German, and Swedish are the only races showing as high as 10 per cent earning $17.50 or over per week, while the English and German are the only ones showing a proportion earning as high as $25.

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RELATION BETWEEN PERIOD OF RESIDENCE AND EARNING ABILITY.

The progress of male employees of foreign birth in industrial efficiency or earning ability after designated periods of residence in the United States, is considered in the next series of tabulations. The first table presented shows, by race and length of residence in the United States the percentage of foreign-born male employees, 18 years of age or over, earning each specified amount per week. The proportions in each period of residence are arranged under the several races, thus enabling a study to be made of the progress of the male employees of each race.

Table 21.- Per cent of foreign-born male employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified amount per week, by race and length of residence in the United States.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes

only races with 200 or more males reporting.)

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* This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

The above table shows that all of each race, regardless of length of residence in the United States, earn $5 or over per week. Only 2 races, the Croatians and Finns, report a proportion earning less than $7.50 a week, the proportion being small in each instance and falling among those who have been in this country ten years or over. Over 95 per cent of those of each race within each specified period of residence earn $10 or over per week. Less than 50 per cent of each race, except the English, and those of the Finns who have been in this country from five to nine years, earn as high as $15 per week, while the English is the only race reporting a proportion as high as 10 per cent of those with any specified period of residence earning either $17.50 or over or $20 or over per week. It is also the only race reporting a proportion earning $25 or over per week.

In the table following the same data as in the table preceding is presented, but in a different form. The comparative earnings each week of foreign-born male employees who were 18 years of age or over are shown by race.

Table 22.-Comparative earnings per week of foreign-born male employees 18 years of

age or over, by race and length of residence in the United States.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes

only races with 200 or more males reporting.)

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a This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

With the exception of a certain small proportion of the Croatians and Finns who have been in the United States ten years or over, each race shows that its entire number earn $7.50 or over. The French Canadian is the only race not showing a proportion of its number who have been in the United States less than five years who earn as high as $15 a week, as compared with 59.1 per cent of the English. The same races show the largest and smallest proportions, with each other specified period of residence, earning the same amount. Less than 5 per cent of those of any given race with a period of residence of less than ten years earn as high as $20 a week—the English showing 12.6 per cent and the North Italians none of their number with a period of residence of ten years or over earning this amount. The English is the only race reporting a proportion earning as high as $25 a week.

ANNUAL EARNINGS OF MALE HEADS OF FAMILIES STUDIED,

The annual earnings of male heads of families studied are next considered. The first table presented shows, by general nativity and race of husband, the number and per cent of husbands at work, together with their average annual earnings.

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